Policy initiatives

Publications

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
From Policy to Practice

The reauthorization of the special education act (IDEIA) placed great emphasis of scientifically based instruction and interventions.  This chapter reviews the implications for how special education services are delivered.

Detrich, R. (2008). From Policy to Practice. Grigorenko, E. L. (Ed.). Educating individuals with disabilities: IDEIA 2004 and beyond. Springer Publishing Company.

Getting Honest about Grad Rates: How States Play the Numbers and Students Lose.

This document discusses what is needed for accurate graduation rates and provides data on state graduation rates, along with adequate yearly progress information. 

Hall, D. (2005). Getting Honest about Grad Rates: How States Play the Numbers and Students Lose. Education Trust.

 

Data Mining

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Have reading scores improved over 40-plus years of school reform?

This review examines student reading performance since 1971 to look for evidence of school reform's impact.

Keyworth, R. (2015). Have reading scores improved over 40-plus years of school reform? Retrieved from have-reading-scores-improved865.

Does a longer school year or longer school day improve student achievement scores?

This reviews looks at the issue, do longer school days and longer school years improve student achievement?

States, J. (2011). Does a longer school year or longer school day improve student achievement scores? Retrieved from does-longer-school-year.

What is the relationship between hours of instruction and math and reading achievement?

This analysis examines an international comparison of the length of the school year and it's impact on student's math and reading achievement.

States, J. (2011). What is the relationship between hours of instruction and math and reading achievement? Retrieved from what-is-relationship-between919.

How long do reform initiatives last in public schools?
This analysis examined sustainability of education reforms in education.
Detrich, R. (2015). How long do reform initiatives last in public schools? Retrieved from how-long-do-reform.
Has student mathematics proficiency improved over the past 20+ years?
This review looks at student math performance since 1992 for trends and to determine the level of progress for student in the United States.
Keyworth, R. (2015). Has student mathematics proficiency improved over the past 20+ years? Retrieved from has-student-mathematics-proficiency.
Has student reading proficiency improved over the past 20+ years?
This review looks at student reading performance since 1992 for trends and to determine the level of progress for student in the United States.
Keyworth, R. (2015). Has student reading proficiency improved over the past 20+ years? Retrieved from has-student-reading-proficiency.
Have mathematics scores improved over 40-plus years of school reform?
This review examines student math performance since 1971 to look for evidence of school reform's impact.
Keyworth, R. (2015). Have mathematics scores improved over 40-plus years of school reform? Retrieved from have-mathematics-scores-improved.
Which School Reform Programs Produce the Best Results?
This review looks at comprehensive school reform efforts to determine which have had the greatest positive impact on students and schools.
States, J. (2011). Which School Reform Programs Produce the Best Results? Retrieved from which-school-reform-programs.
What is the impact of reform efforts over time?
This analysis examined a meta-analysis of the impact of comprehensive school reform for 29 widely implemented reform models.
States, J. (2015). What is the impact of reform efforts over time? Retrieved from what-is-impact-of853.

 

Presentations

TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Evidence, Ethics, and the Law
This paper reviews the legal and ethical basis for relying on scientifically supported interventions to improve outcomes for students.
Detrich, R. (2007). Evidence, Ethics, and the Law [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2007-apbs-presentation-ronnie-detrich.
Evidence-based Education: It Isn't as Simple as You Might Think
On the face of it, the mandate to utilize scientifically supported interventions to improve outcomes seems obvious and straighforward. The paper reviews the challenges involved in doing so.
Detrich, R. (2007). Evidence-based Education: It Isn't as Simple as You Might Think [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2007-calaba-ebe-presentation-ronnie-detrich.
IDEIA and Evidence-based Interventions: Implications for Practitioners
The reauthorization of special education law (IDEIA) emphasizes using scientifically supported programs. This talk reviews the implications for special education practitioners.
Detrich, R. (2008). IDEIA and Evidence-based Interventions: Implications for Practitioners [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2008-apbs-txint-presentation-ronnie-detrich.
The Ethical and Legal Basis for Evidence-based Education: Implications for the Profession
No Child Left Behind emphasized the importantance of utilizing practices that are scientifically supported. This paper reviews the implications of evidence-based education for the profession.
Detrich, R. (2008). The Ethical and Legal Basis for Evidence-based Education: Implications for the Profession [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2008-teacher-presentation-ronnie-detrich.
Ten Years of Evidence-based Education: A Status Report
This paper describes the progress that has been made in evidence-based education since No Child Left Behind became law.
Detrich, R. (2011). Ten Years of Evidence-based Education: A Status Report [Powerpoint Slides]. Retrieved from 2011-northwestern-presentation-10yrsstatusreport-ronnie-detrich.
TITLE
SYNOPSIS
CITATION
Board of Education of the Hendrick Hudson Central School District, Westchester County v. Rowley

The United States Supreme Court's recent inaugural decision involving the scope of the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975, 1 Board of Education v. Rowley, 2 wherein the Court ruled that the Westchester County public school district is not required to provide a deaf student with a sign language interpreter in the classroom, represents an extraordinary example of judicial usurpation of the legislative function.

Powell Jr, L. F. (1981). Board of Education of the Hendrick Hudson Central School District, Westchester County v. Rowley.

Transforming the culture of schools: Yup’ik Eskimo examples

This book share issues of equity and school transformation, and shows how one indigenous minority teachers' group engaged in a process of transforming schooling in their community. Documented in one small locale far-removed from mainstream America, the personal narratives by Yupík Eskimo teachers. 

 Lipka, J., & Ilutsik, E. (2014). Transforming the Culture of Schools: Yup¡ k Eskimo Examples. Routledge.

Why Money Matters for Improving Education

This article explore the relationship between per pupil spending and learning, particularly in developing countries that spend much lower levels in education than do OECD countries. Their findings suggest that, when education systems spend above $8,000, the association between student learning and per student spending is no longer statistically significant. Therefore, they find a threshold effect after this level of resources is met, indicating a declining relationship between resources and achievement at high levels of expenditure (consistent with other recent literature). There is a positive relationship between student learning and per pupil expenditure among the low-spending countries (below $8,000 per student), but a flat relationship among high-spending countries. 

 Vegas, E. (2016).Why Money Matters for Improving Education. Brooking Institutions. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/blog/up-front/2016/07/21/why-money-matters-for-improving-education/

Leadership for Learning: Making the Connections among State, District, and School Policies and Practices

This paper discusses the potential and challenges of a “cohesive leadership system” which coordinates leadership standards, training, and conditions at both the State and district levels. Effective coordination of these components, then, has the potential to both speed and make more permanent the benefits to the learning of all students.

Leadership for Learning: Making the Connections among State, District, and School Policies and Practices. (2006). New York: The Wallace Foundation. Retrieved from https://schoolturnaroundsupport.org/resources/leadership-learning-making-connections

Our responsibility, Our promise: Transforming Educator Preparation and Entry Into the Profession

This report is a call to action for chiefs and an invitation to our colleagues, especially members of NASBE and NGA who contributed to this report. The recommendations contained in this report focus on the levers for change that are the responsibility of state education agencies (SEAs) and, where applicable, their partner professional standards boards: licensure; program approval; and data collection, analysis, and reporting.

Our responsibility, Our promise: Transforming Educator Preparation and Entry Into the Profession. (2012). Washington, DC: The Council of Chief State School Officers. Retrieved from https://www.ccsso.org/sites/default/files/2017-10/Our%20Responsibility%20Our%20Promise_2012.pdf

Research Findings to Support effective Educational policymaking: Evidence& Action Steps for State, District & Local Policymakers

This paper offer a number of research findings and action steps drawn from policies and practices that have been shown to be critical to the success of educational reforms at the local, district and state levels.

Research Findings to Support effective Educational policymaking: Evidence& Action Steps for State, District & Local Policymakers. (2009). New York: The Wallace Foundation. Retrieved from: https://www.wallacefoundation.org/knowledge-center/Documents/Research-Findings-Action-Items-to-Support-Effective-Educational-Policymaking.pdf

State board's graduation fix falls woefully short

This article discuss about The State Board of Education advise to make changes to Ohio's new and more rigorous graduation requirements. This article show the conditions that the board ignore, and the problem lies in the other options recommended by the board. This article also give suggestion to create a tiered diploma system based on current graduation requirements. 

Aldis, C. L., Churchill, A. (2017). State board's graduation fix falls woefully short. Fordham Institute. Retrieved from https://fordhaminstitute.org/national/commentary/state-boards-graduation-fix-falls-woefully-short

The Clinical Preparation of Teachers: A Policy Brief

This policy brief focuses on the clinical aspects of teacher preparation in each of these key features. These aspects include the typical processes of clinical work, the location, and the duration of the training.

American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education (AACTE). (2010). The clinical preparation of teachers: A policy brief. Washington, DC: Author.

Teacher Induction Programs: Trends and Opportunities

State-level policy support for teacher induction programs can help teachers realize their full potential, keep them in the profession, promote greater student learning, and save money. Higher education institutions and school districts must work together to provide high-quality and well-designed induction programs. 

American Association of State Colleges and Universities (AASCU). (2006). Teacher induction programs: Trends and opportunities. Policy Matters, 3(10), 1–4.

A Policymaker’s Guide: Research-Based Policy for Principal Preparation Program Approval and Licensure

Intended as a formative assessment tool, this guide provides detailed, individual state profiles and state-to-state comparisons of 8 policy areas and 21 policy criteria that support the development of effective leaders.

Anderson, E., & Reynolds, A. L. (2015). A policymaker’s guide: Research-based policy for principal preparation program approval and licensure. Charlottesville, VA: University Council for Educational Administration.

Call for Action to Prevent Gun Violence in the United States of America Interdisciplinary Group on Preventing School and Community Violence

In response to the continuing gun violence in American schools, an interdisciplinary group of 19 scholars are proposing an eight-point plan to prevent future tragedies that have become common place in the nation. This one-page position statement proposes a public health approach to protecting children as well as adults from gun violence involves three levels of prevention: (1) universal approaches promoting safety and well-being for everyone; (2) practices for reducing risk and promoting protective factors for persons experiencing difficulties; and (3) interventions for individuals where violence is present or appears imminent.

Astor, R. et al. (2018). Call for Action to Prevent Gun Violence in the United States of America. University of Virginia.

 

Improving School Leadership the promise of cohesive leadership system

This paper has three objectives: (1) to create set of policies and initiatives by document the actions taken by Wallace Foundation, (2) to describe how states and districts have worked together to forge more-cohesive policies and initiatives aroung school leadership, (3)to examine the hypothesis that more-cohesive systems do in fact improve school leadership.

Augustine, C. H., Gonzalez, G., Ikemoto, G. S., Russell, J., & Zellman, G. L. (2009). Improving school leadership: The promise of cohesive leadership systems. Rand Corporation.

Knowledge Utilization: The Third Wave

The Knowledge Utilization Society provides a home for researchers, scholars, and others who examine the processes of knowledge utilization and develop and test strategies for planned change in public and private institutions.

Backer, T. E. (1991). Knowledge utilization: The third wave. Knowledge12(3), 225-240.

Teacher–Student Relationship Climate and School Outcomes: Implications for Educational Policy Initiatives

This study examined whether associations between teacher policies and student achievement were mediated by the teacher–student relationship climate. Results of this study were threefold. These findings are discussed in light of their educational policy implications.

Barile, J. P., Donohue, D. K., Anthony, E. R., Baker, A. M., Weaver, S. R., & Henrich, C. C. (2012). Teacher–student relationship climate and school outcomes: Implications for educational policy initiatives. Journal of Youth and Adolescence41(3), 256-267.

Pay for Percentile

This paper proposes an incentive scheme for educators that links compensation to the ranks of their students within comparison sets. 

Barlevy, G., & Neal, D. (2012). Pay for percentile. The American Economic Review, 102(5), 1805-1831.

Comparing Closed For-Profit Colleges to Public College Sector

This research compare for-profit college networks with the public sector. The author emphasize economic criteria for evaluating colleges and the need to consider many such criteria to make a valid comparison. In conclusion, public colleges are much cheaper than for-profit colleges. From a student perspective, this difference would have to be offset by a much superior performance of for-profit colleges to be advantageous. However, the evidence tends to point in the opposite direction. While ITT’s post-enrollment student earnings are comparable to those of many public colleges, on the whole the outcomes of public colleges appear to be better than those of the two closed for-profit networks of colleges.

Belfield, C. (2016). Comparing Closed For-Profit Colleges to Public College Sector. CAPSEE. Retrieved from https://capseecenter.org/comparing-closed-for-profit-colleges-to-public-college-sector/

The Effect of Voucher Programs on Student Achievement: A Meta-Analysis

This meta-analysis examines the effectiveness of school voucher programs for improving student achievement. The research is of special interest for three important reasons; (1) it examines an important policy issue relevant to educators and the public, (2) it is an example of a study designed to replicate previous research on an important topic, and (3) it highlights the importance of examining the cost effectiveness associated with implementing practices in real world settings.

 

Bennett, M., Banerjee, H. L.,  Doan, L. N., Geib, T., and Burley, A. (2018). The Effect of Voucher Programs on Student Achievement: A Meta-Analysis. AERA Conference New York, NY. 10.302/1302823

Assessment and classroom learning. Assessment in Education: principles, policy & practice

This is a review of the literature on classroom formative assessment. Several studies show firm evidence that innovations designed to strengthen the frequent feedback that students receive about their learning yield substantial learning gains.

Black, P., & Wiliam, D. (1998). Assessment and classroom learning. Assessment in Education: principles, policy & practice, 5(1), 7-74.

Review of Lessongs From State Performance of NAEP: Why Some high-Poverty Students Score Better Than Others

This research aim to find a strong connection between standards-based reform and student outcomes by studied the most recent NAEP data. Their findings believe that states should remain dedicated to standards-based reform. The Common Core is the most recent major policy initiative to advance the broader standards-based reform approach and states should continue their commitment to the Common Core’s full implementation and aligned assessments.

Boser, U., & Brown, C. (2016). Lessons from State Performance on NAEP: Why Some High-Poverty Students Score Better than Others. Center for American Progress.

Mental Health and Social Services: Results from the School Health Policies and Programs Study 2000

This article describes the characteristics of school mental health and social services in the United States, including state‐ and district‐level policies and school practices.

Brener, N. D., Martindale, J., & Weist, M. D. (2001). Mental health and social services: Results from the School Health Policies and Programs Study 2000. Journal of School Health71(7), 305-312.

Charter Competition adn District Finances: Evidence from California students.

Using detailed expenditure data for school districts in California, this paper exploits variation in charter school enrollment across time and between districts to evaluate how district spending and overall financial health change as nearby charter sectors expand. Differences between results found in this analysis and those from similar analyses in other states may be explicable in terms of California’s economic and policy context, providing lessons for policymakers.

Bruno, P. (2017). Charter competition and district finances: Evidence from California. Working Paper.

Principal Concerns: Leadership Data and Strategies for States.

This report tells policymakers what metrics they must track in order to make the best decisions regarding the supply and training of school leaders.

Campbell, C., & Gross, B. (2012). Principal Concerns: Leadership Data and Strategies for States. Center on Reinventing Public Education.

International Test Score Comparisons and Educational Policy: A Review of the Critiques

This paper review the main (four) critiques that have been made of international tests, as well as the rationales and education policy analyses accompanying these critiques. This brief also discusses a set of (four) critiques around the underlying social meaning and educational policy value of international test comparisons. These comparisons indicate how students in various countries score on a particular test, but do they carry a larger meaning? This paper also have some recommendations based on their critiques. 

Carnoy, M. (2015). International Test Score Comparisons and Educational Policy: A Review of the Critiques. National Education Policy Center.

Teacher mobility, school segregation, and pay-based policies to level the playing field

Using information on teaching spells in North Carolina, the authors examine the potential for using salary differentials to overcome this pattern. They conclude that salary differentials are a far less effective tool for retaining teachers with strong pre‐service qualifications than for retaining other teachers in schools with high proportions of minority students. 

Clotfelter, C. T., Ladd, H. F., Vigdor, J. L. (2011). Teacher mobility, school segregation, and pay-based policies to level the playing field. Education Finance and Policy6(3), 399-438.

School Climate Policy and Practice Trends: A Paradox

This commentary details three factors that contribute to school climate reform being more of an idealized goal than an actual school improvement practice today: (i) confusion about what constitutes an effective school climate improvement process in general; (ii) confusion about how school climate reform is similar and/or different from PBIS; and, (iii) educational policies and accountability systems that actually discourage principals and superintendents from actively supporting school climate improvement efforts.

Cohen, J. (2014). School climate policy and practice trends: A paradox. Teachers College Record, 1-5. Retrieved from https://www.schoolclimate.org/themes/schoolclimate/assets/pdf/policy/SCPolicy&PracticeTrends-CommentaryTCRecord2-28-14.pdf

Can teachers be evaluated by their students’ test scores? Should they be? The use of value-added measures for teacher effectiveness in policy and practice

In this report, the author aim to provide an accessible introduction to these new measures of teaching quality and put them into the broader context of concerns over school quality and achievement gaps.

Corcoran, S. P. (2010). Can Teachers Be Evaluated by Their Students' Test Scores? Should They Be? The Use of Value-Added Measures of Teacher Effectiveness in Policy and Practice. Education Policy for Action Series. Annenberg Institute for School Reform at Brown University (NJ1).

A Call for Reformation of Teacher Preparation Programs in the United States

The following paper will call for the reform of teacher preparation programs in three distinct areas. Examination of current data, application of educational theorists’ perspectives and comparative analysis of international practices, will prove the need for reform in teacher preparation program recruitment practices, curriculum, and support systems.

Dann, A. I. (2014). A Call for Reformation of Teacher Preparation Programs in the United States. Online Submission.

Reframing the School Reform Agenda: Developing Capacity for School Transformation.

Economic and demographic changes in the United States signal a new mission for education. This paper argues that this changed mission requires a new paradigm for school reform policy, one that shifts from designing controls intended to direct the system to developing capacity that enables schools to meet students' needs. 

Darling-Hammond, L. (1992). Reframing the School Reform Agenda: Developing Capacity for School Transformation.

Policies that support professional development in an era of reform.

In this article the authors examine some design principles to guide policy-makers and school reformers who seek to promote learner-centred professional development which involves teachers as active and reflective participants in the change process.

Darling-Hammond, L., & McLaughlin, M. W. (1995). Policies that support professional development in an era of reform. Phi Delta Kappan, 76(8), 597–604.

Wanted: A national teacher supply policy for education: The right way to meet the “highly qualified teacher” challenge

The authors study the mal-distribution of teachers and examine its causes then describe examples of both states and local school districts that have fashioned successful strategies for strengthening their teaching forces. 

Darling-Hammond, L., and Sykes, G. (2003). Wanted: A national teacher supply policy for education: The right way to meet the “highly qualified teacher” challenge. Education Policy Analysis Archives11(33), 1–55.

To Err Is Human: Building a Safer Health System

This report describes a serious concern in health care that, if discussed at all, is discussed only behind closed doors. As health care and the system that delivers it become more complex, the opportunities for errors abound.

Donaldson, M. S., Corrigan, J. M., & Kohn, L. T. (Eds.). (2000). To err is human: building a safer health system (Vol. 6). National Academies Press.

Minority Students in Special and Gifted Education.

This book discusses findings and recommendations of the Committee on Minority Representation in Special Education of the National Research Council. 

Donovan, M. S., & Cross, C. T. (2002). Minority students in special and gifted education. National Academies Press, 2101 Constitution Ave., NW, Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055.

functional behavior assessments: legal requirements and challenges

This article presents the legal requirements of the IDEA amendments regarding ISPs, FBAs, and BIPs for special education students with problem behavior, (b) describe the initial policy letters, and (c) discuss the implications of the law for school psychologists and other members of IEP teams. 

Drasgow, E., & Yell, M. L. (2001). Legal Requirements and Challenges. School Psychology Review30(2), 239-251.

Indicators for Sustainable Communities: A Strategy Building on Complexity Theory and Distributed Intelligence

This article reviews the research and practice of indicator development and use, summarizing several key lessons from this review.

E. Innes, J., & Booher, D. E. (2000). Indicators for sustainable communities: a strategy building on complexity theory and distributed intelligence. Planning theory & practice1(2), 173-186.

Indicators for Sustainable Communities: A Strategy Building on Complexity Theory and Distributed Intelligence

This article reviews the research and practice of indicator development and use, summarizing several key lessons from this review.

E. Innes, J., & Booher, D. E. (2000). Indicators for sustainable communities: a strategy building on complexity theory and distributed intelligence. Planning theory & practice1(2), 173-186.

Tapping The Potential: Retaining And Developing High-Quality New Teachers

This paper looks at methods to enable teachers to generalize skills taught in pre-service to use in the classroom.

Fallon, D. (2004). Tapping the potential: Retaining and developing high-quality new teachers.

What educators need to know about ESSA.

The Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) returns decision making for our nation’s education back where it belongs – in the hands of local educators, families, and communities – while keeping the focus on students most in need.

Fennell, M. (2016). What educators need to know about ESSA. Educational Leadership, 73, 62–65.

Standards of evidence: Criteria for efficacy, effectiveness and dissemination

Ever-increasing demands for accountability, together with the proliferation of lists of evidence-based prevention programs and policies, led the Society for Prevention Research to charge a committee with establishing standards for identifying effective prevention programs and policies. 

Flay, B. R., Biglan, A., Boruch, R. F., Castro, F. G., Gottfredson, D., Kellam, S., ... & Ji, P. (2005). Standards of evidence: Criteria for efficacy, effectiveness and dissemination. Prevention science6(3), 151-175.

Harming Our Common Future: America's Segregated Schools 65 Years after Brown

The publication of this report marks the 65th anniversary of Brown v. Board of Education, the landmark U.S. Supreme Court case declaring racial segregation in public schools unconstitutional. This report shows that the growth of racial and economic segregation that began then has now continued unchecked for nearly three decades, placing the promise of Brown at grave risk. Research shows that segregation has strong, negative relationships with the achievement, college success, long-term employment and income of students of color. 

Frankenberg, E., Ee, J., Ayscue, J. B., & Orfield, G. (2019). Harming our Common Future: America's Segregated Schools 65 Years after Brown.

Responsiveness-to-intervention: A blueprint for practitioners, policymakers, and parents

CASL's general goal is to identify instructional practices that accelerate the learning of K-3 children with disabilities. A specific goal is to identify and understand the nature of nonresponsiveness to generally effective instruction. 

Fuchs, D., & Fuchs, L. S. (2005). Responsiveness-to-intervention: A blueprint for practitioners, policymakers, and parents. Teaching Exceptional Children38(1), 57-61.

Choosing the wrong drivers for whole system reform

Whole system reform is just that – 100 per cent of the system – a whole state, province, region or entire country. This paper examines those drivers typically chosen by leaders to accomplish reform, critiques their inadequacy, and offers an alternative set of drivers that have been proven to be more effective at accomplishing the desired goal. 

Fullan, M. (2011). Choosing the wrong drivers for whole system reform (pp. 3-4). Melbourne: Centre for Strategic Education.

Governing Schools for Productivity. The Productivity for Results Series No. 4

The author explains in this paper that policies from on high often work against campuses being more productive. This paper ends with definite recommendations about how new governance arrangements can promote productivity. 

George W. Bush Institute. (2014). Governing Schools for Productivity. The Productivity for Results Series No. 4. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED560216.pdf

Considerations for evaluating universal screening assessments

The purpose of this article is to (a) highlight several considerations about the appropriateness, technical adequacy, and usability of academic or behavioral screeners and (b) provide a general assessment of the current state of science pertaining to universal screening. The article concludes with considerations for policy and practice. 

Glover, T. A., & Albers, C. A. (2007). Considerations for evaluating universal screening assessments. Journal of School Psychology45(2), 117-135.

Uneven Playing Field? Assessing the Teacher Quality Gap Between Advantaged and Disadvantaged Students

In this study, we present a comprehensive, descriptive analysis of the inequitable distribution of both input and output measures of teacher quality across various indicators of student disadvantage across all school districts in Washington State.

Goldhaber, D., Lavery, L., & Theobald, R. (2015). Uneven playing field? Assessing the teacher quality gap between advantaged and disadvantaged students. Educational researcher44(5), 293-307.

Policy Implications for Implementing Evidence-Based Practices

The authors describe the policy and administrative-practice implications of implementing evidence-based services, particularly in public-sector settings. They review the observations of the contributors to the evidence-based practices series published throughout 2001 in Psychiatric Services.

Goldman, H. H., Ganju, V., Drake, R. E., Gorman, P., Hogan, M., Hyde, P. S., & Morgan, O. (2001). Policy implications for implementing evidence-based practices. Psychiatric Services52(12), 1591-1597.

Diffusion of Innovations in Service Organizations: Systematic Review and Recommendations

This article summarizes an extensive literature review addressing the question, How can we spread and sustain innovations in health service delivery and organization? It considers both content and process.  

Greenhalgh, T., Robert, G., Macfarlane, F., Bate, P., & Kyriakidou, O. (2004). Diffusion of innovations in service organizations: systematic review and recommendations. The Milbank Quarterly82(4), 581-629.

Undue process: Why bad teachers in twenty-five diverse districts rarely get fired

Is dismissing poorly performing teachers truly feasible in America today? After all the political capital (and real capital) spent on reforming teacher evaluation, can districts actually terminate ineffective teachers who have tenure or have achieved veteran status?

Griffith, D., & McDougald, V. (2016). Undue process: Why bad teachers in twenty-five diverse districts rarely get fired. Washington DC: Thomas B. Fordham Institute. Retrieved from http://edex. s3-us-west-2. amazonaws. com/publication/pdfs2812, 29.

Policy and Process: Means to Lasting Educational Change.

Discusses educational changes from a system perspective. Sets forth a series of assertions based on eight years of experience with special-education reform initiatives in Iowa. Presents generalizations from an experiential base regarding critical components and characteristics of change process. Gives specific recommendations for persons contemplating educational innovative initiatives. 

Grimes, J., & Tilly III, W. D. (1996). Policy and Process: Means to Lasting Educational Change. School Psychology Review25(4), 465-76.

Sustainability: An Enduring Commitment to Success

The infrastructure supporting organizational transformation to a problem-solving system occurred on two levels, global and local. The reform effort is described in four phases.

Grimes, J., Kurns, S., Tilly, W. D., & II, I. (2006). Sustainability: An enduring commitment to success. School Psychology Review35(2), 224.

No Child Left Behind, Contingencies, and Utah's Alternate Assessment

This article examine the concept of behavioral contingency and describes NCLB as a set of contingencies to promote the use of effective educational practices. Then they describe their design of an alternate assessment, including the components designed to capitalize on the contingencies of NCLB to promote positive educational outcomes. 

Hager, K. D., Slocum, T. A., & Detrich, R. (2007). No Child Left Behind, Contingencies, and Utah’s Alternate Assessment. JEBPS Vol 8-N1, 63.

Teacher evaluation as a policy target for improved student learning: A fifty-state review of statute and regulatory action since NCLB

This paper reports on the analysis of state statutes and department of education regulations in fifty states for changes in teacher evaluation in use since the passage of No Child Left Behind Act of 2001.

Hazi, H. M., & Rucinski, D. A. (2009). Teacher evaluation as a policy target for improved student learning: A fifty-state review of statute and regulatory action since NCLB. education policy analysis archives17, 5.

Evaluating the relationships between poverty and school.

This study examined the relationships between poverty and a school's academic performance (both student achievement and growth).

Hegedus, A. (2018). Evaluating the Relationships between Poverty and School Performance. NWEA Research. NWEA.

Making School Reform Work: New Partnerships for Real Change

Here six authorities in public education discuss how local philanthropies can overcome them even if school districts cannot. Making School Reform Work identifies new institutions that can be created by foundations and civic groups to remedy deficiencies in local school governance, formulate bold reforms, and guarantee implementation. 

Hill, P. T., & Harvey, J. (Eds.). (2004). Making school reform work: New partnerships for real change. Brookings Institution Press.

The Problem with "Proficiency": Limitaions of Statistic and Policy Under No Child Left Behind

The Percentage of Proficient Students (PPS) has become a ubiquitous statistic under the No Child Left Behind Act. The author demonstrates that the PPS metric offers only limited and unrepresentative depictions of large-scale test score trends, gaps, and gap trends.  The author shows how the statistical shortcomings of these depictions extend to shortcomings of policy, from exclusively encouraging score gains near the proficiency cut score to shortsighted comparisons of state and national testing results. The author proposes alternatives for large-scale score reporting and argues that a distribution-wide perspective on results is required for any serious analysis of test score data, including “growth”-related results under the recent Growth Model Pilot Program.

Ho, A. D. (2008). The problem with “proficiency”: Limitations of statistics and policy under No Child Left Behind. Educational researcher37(6), 351-360.

School psychology: a public health framework I. From evidence-based practices to evidence-based policies

This report, preceded as it was by the seminal report of the Surgeon General on Mental Health (2000) and followed by the Surgeon General’s Youth Violence (2001) and Culture, Race and Ethnicity Reports (2002), represented a critical shift in federal health priorities.

Hoagwood, K., & Johnson, J. (2003). School psychology: A public health framework: I. From evidence-based practices to evidence-based policies. Journal of School Psychology41(1), 3-21.

Four Domains for Rapid School Improvement: An Implementation Framework. The Center on School Turnaround.

This paper describes “how” to effectively implement lasting school improvement initiatives that maximize leadership, develop talent, amplify instructional transformation, and shift the culture.

Jackson, K., R., Fixsen, D., and Ward, C. (2018). Four Domains for Rapid School Improvement: An Implementation Framework. The Center on School Turnaround.

Restorative justice in Oakland schools. Implementation and impact: An effective strategy to reduce racially disproportionate discipline, suspensions, and improve academic outcomes.

This study examines the impact of The Whole School Restorative Justice Program (WSRJ). WSRJ utilizes a multi-tiered strategy. Tier 1 is regular classroom circles, Tier 2 is repair harm/conflict circles, and Tier 3 includes mediation, family group conferencing, and welcome/re-entry circles to initiate successful re-integration of students being released from juvenile detention centers.The key findings of this report show decreased problem behavior, improved school climate, and improved student achievement. 

Jain, S., Bassey, H., Brown, M. A., & Kalra, P. (2014). Restorative justice in Oakland schools. Implementation and impact: An effective strategy to reduce racially disproportionate discipline, suspensions, and improve academic outcomes. Retrieved from http://www.rjtica.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/OUSD-RJ-Report-full.pdf

Pursuing a “sense of success”: New teachers explain their career decisions.

This article reports on a longitudinal study designed to explore these questions. In 1999, researchers from The Project on the Next Generation of Teachers selected and interviewed a diverse group of 50 new teachers in the Massachusetts public schools.

Johnson, S. M., & Birkeland, S. E. (2003). Pursuing a “sense of success”: New teachers explain their career decisions. American Educational Research Journal40(3), 581-617.

Teacher retention: Evidence to inform policy

This policy brief summarizes the available evidence on the policy relevant factors that affect teacher turnover.

Katz, V. (2018). Teacher retention: Evidence to inform policy. Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia. Retrieved from https://curry.virginia.edu/sites/default/files/uploads/epw/Teacher%20Retention%20Policy%20Brief.pdf

Knowledge and public policy: The search for meaningful indicators

This book addresses the question of what it takes to develop social indicators that genuinely influence important public decisions

Knowledge and public policy: The search for meaningful indicators

Empirically supported interventions: Announcing a new standing section of School Psychology Quarterly.

The inauguration of the ESI section of School Psychology Quarterly represents a new era in research for our profession that we hope will usher in advancements for both the science and practice of school psychology.

Kratochwill, T. R., & Stoiber, K. C. (2000). Empirically supported interventions: Announcing a new standing section of School Psychology Quarterly. School Psychology Quarterly15(1), 69.

Moneyball for Higher Education: How Federal Leaders Can Use Data and Evidence to Improve Student Outcomes

This report recommend thirteen specific steps the federal government can take to develop new methods to define and measure such outcomes, use federal resources to build and apply evidence of what works, and help colleges and universities invest in student outcomes.

Kvaal, J., Bridgeland, J. (2018). Moneyball for Higher Education: How Federal Leaders Can Use Data and Evidence to Improve Student Outcomes. Retrieved from https://results4america.org/tools/moneyball-higher-education-federal-leaders-can-use-data-evidence-improve-student-outcomes/

Cost-effectiveness and educational policy.

This article provides a summary of measuring the fiscal impact of practices in education
educational policy.

Levin, H. M., & McEwan, P. J. (2002). Cost-effectiveness and educational policy. Larchmont, NY: Eye on Education.

The Behavioralist Goes to School: Leveraging Behavioral Economics to Improve Educational Performance

This paper explore the power of behavioral economics to influence the level of effort exerted by students in a low stakes testing environment. This paper find a substantial impact on test scores from incentives when the rewards are delivered immediately. There is suggestive evidence that rewards framed as losses outperform those framed as gains. 

Levitt, S. D., List, J. A., Neckermann, S., & Sadoff, S. (2016). The behavioralist goes to school: Leveraging behavioral economics to improve educational performance. American Economic Journal: Economic Policy8(4), 183-219.

Dear Colleagues Letter: Resource Comparability

Dear Colleagues Letter: Resource Comparability is a letter written by United States Department of Education. This letter was meant to call people attention to disparities that persist in access to educational resources, and to help address those disparities and comply with the legal obligation to provide students with equal access to these resources without regard to race, color, or national origin (This letter addresses legal obligations under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Title VI). This letter builds on the prior work shared by the U.S. Department of Education on this critical topic.

Lhamon, C. E. (2014). Dear colleague letter: Resource comparability. Washington, DC: US Department of Education, Office for Civil Rights. Retrieved from http://www2. ed. gov/about/offices/list/ocr/letters/colleague-resourcecomp-201410. pdf.

The Characteristics and Experiences of Youth in Special Education. Findings from the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2012. Volume 2: Comparisons across Disability Groups

The United States has committed to improving the lives of students with disabilities for over 40 years. Since the advent of Federal Law PL 94-142 in 1975 that mandated a free and appropriate education for all students regardless of ability and six reauthorizations of legislation, the federal government has emphasized the need to prepare students with disabilities for post-secondary education, careers, and independent living. The federal investment in funding special education services exceeds $15 Billion annually. It is reasonable to ask, are student with disabilities substantially benefiting from these efforts? The National Longitudinal Transition Study (NLTS) provides the most recent data on youth with disabilities and efforts to address their needs. The study used surveys in 2012 and 2013 on a nationally representative set of nearly 13,000 students. The student included were mostly those with an individualized education program (IEP) and expected to receive special education services. The data reveal participation in key transition activities by youth with an IEP and their parents have declined, although they are just as likely to have gone to an IEP meeting. The findings from this report suggest a closer examination of current practices is warranted with a focus on achieving the stated outcomes the laws were designed to remedy.

Lipscomb, S., Hamison, J., Liu Albert, Y., Burghardt, J., Johnson, D. R., & Thurlow, M. (2018). Preparing for Life after High School: The Characteristics and Experiences of Youth in Special Education. Findings from the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2012. Volume 2: Comparisons across Disability Groups. Full Report. NCEE 2017-4018. National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance.

The Campbell Collaboration: Providing Better Evidence for a Better World

This paper provides the history and summarizes the development of the Campbell Collaboration. The Campbell Collaboration is a “nonprofit organization with the mission of helping people make well-informed decisions about the effects of interventions in the social, behavioral, and educational domains. The paper looks at the organization’s efforts to build a world library of accurate, synthesized evidence to inform policy and practice and improve human well-being worldwide. The Education section of the Campbell research library produces reviews on issues in early childhood, elementary, secondary, and postsecondary education. Topics range from academic programs, teacher qualifications, testing, to a wide variety of school-based interventions. Campbell systematic reviews and related evidence synthesis provide unbiased summaries of bodies of empirical evidence. 

Littell, J. H., & White, H. (2018). The Campbell Collaboration: Providing better evidence for a better world. Research on Social Work Practice28(1), 6-12.

Common Core’s Major Political Challenges for the Remainder of 2016

This article elaborate on a topic "What to expect in Common Core immediate political future". Here, they discuss four key challenges that CCSS will face between now and the end of the year. Common Core is now several years into implementation.  Supporters have had a difficult time persuading skeptics that any positive results have occurred. The best evidence has been mixed on that question. The political challenges that Common Core faces the remainder of this year may determine whether it survives.

Loveless, T. (2016). Common Core’s Major Political Challenges for the Remainder of 2016. Brookings Institute. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/blog/brown-center-chalkboard/2016/03/30/common-cores-major-political-challenges-for-the-remainder-of-2016/

Rigorous Evidence: Key to Progress Against World Poverty?

The Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) sponsoring rigorous independent evaluations of its funded projects to build scientifically-valid evidence about "what works." On October 29, the nonprofit, nonpartisan Coalition for Evidence-Based Policy, in collaboration with MCC, hosted a forum with leaders of the development policy and research community on MCC's evidence-based approach.

Lyon, R. L. (2002, November). Rigorous evidence: The key to progress in education. In forum of the Coalition for Evidence Based Policy, Washington, DC.

Developing Excellent School Principals to Advance Teaching and Learning: Considerations for State Policy

this report identifies three crucial areas leaders across all states can usefully consider as they seek answers to some key questions. The report emphasizes that every state faces a unique blend of educational, political and financial circumstances and that, therefore, each state's approach should fit its needs and particularities.

Manna, P. (2015). Developing Excellent School Principals to Advance Teaching and Learning: Considerations for State Policy. Wallace Foundation.

Who stays and who leaves? Findings from a three-part study of teacher turnover in NYC middle schools

This research summary focuses on aspects of the study’s results that are likely to be most useful for policymakers and school leaders as they strive to maintain and manage an effective teacher workforce.

Marinell, W. H., & Coca, V. M. (2013). " Who Stays and Who Leaves?" Findings from a Three-Part Study of Teacher Turnover in NYC Middle Schools. Online Submission.

Improving education through standards-based reform.

This report offers recommendations for the implementation of standards-based reform and outlines possible consequences for policy changes. It summarizes both the vision and intentions of standards-based reform and the arguments of its critics.

McLaughlin, M. W., & Shepard, L. A. (1995). Improving Education through Standards-Based Reform. A Report by the National Academy of Education Panel on Standards-Based Education Reform. National Academy of Education, Stanford University, CERAS Building, Room 108, Stanford, CA 94305-3084..

A new approach to the cost of teacher turnover.

This research seeks to provide policy makers with some hard information on the costs of teacher turnover. The goal is to develop an average dollar cost per vacancy, which could also be converted to a percent of payroll, in order to compare to the rules of thumb mentioned
above.

Milanowski, A. T., & Odden, A. R. (2007). A new approach to the cost of teacher turnover. Working Paper 13. Seattle, WA: Center on Reinventing Public Education, University of Washington. Retrieved from https://www.crpe.org/sites/default/files/wp_sfrp13_milanowskiodden_aug08_0.pdf

20 Years of TIMMS International trends in Mathematics and Science Achievement, Curriculum, and Instruction

This report attempts to summarize the most important and interesting trends emerging from TIMSS across the past two decades. The report is organized from macro to micro perspectives. The first chapter provides an overview of student achievement worldwide. The second and third chapters explore curriculum and instruction. The fourth and fifth chapters narrow the focus to two topics of interest among policymakers. 

Mullis, I. V., Martin, M. O., & Loveless, T. (20). years of TIMSS: International trends in mathematics and science achievement, curriculum, and instruction. TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center, Lynch School of Education, Boston College and International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA).

Understanding DALYs

The measurement unit disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), used in recent years to quantify the burden of diseases, injuries and risk factors on human populations, is grounded on cogent economic and ethical principles and can guide policies toward delivering more cost-effective and equitable health care. 

Murray, C. J., & Acharya, A. K. (1997). Understanding DALYs. Journal of health economics16(6), 703-730.

Bridging science and service: A report by the National Advisory Mental Health Council's Clinical Treatment and Services Research Workgroup

The Workgroup reviewed the NIMH research portfolio that extends from academic research settings to large, State-wide service systems, to the moving target of “front-line” clinical care. The review made vividly clear the need for mutually enriching interaction between research and both practice and service systems. 

National Institute of Mental Health. (1999). Bridging science and service: A report by the National Advisory Mental Health Council's Clinical Treatment and Services Research Workgroup.

Professional Standards for Educational Leaders 2015

This document updates a set of voluntary school leadership standards first developed in 1996, then revised in 2008 and long known by the initials of the creator of the original document, ISLLC. The 2015 document differs from its predecessors by focusing more strongly and clearly on students and student learning. 

National Policy Board for Educational Administration. (2015). Professional standards for educational leaders 2015.

Has Public Policy Exceeded Our Knowledge Base? A Review of the Functional Behavioral Assessment Literature

The authors examined the literature on functional behavioral assessment according to external validity and assessment with regard to its cost-benefits (i.e., its effectiveness relative to other approaches, time, and effort). 

Nelson, J. R., Roberts, M. L., Mathur, S. R., & Rutherford Jr, R. B. (1999). Has public policy exceeded our knowledge base? A review of the functional behavioral assessment literature. Behavioral Disorders24(2), 169-179.

Prioritizing Leadership: New Leaders' Federal Policy Platform

Founded in 2000 by a team of social entrepreneurs, New Leaders is a national nonprofit that develops transformational school leaders and designs effective leadership policies and practices for school systems across the country.

New Leaders. (2014). Prioritizing Leadership: New Leaders' Federal Policy Platform. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED559351.pdf

National School Climate Standards Benchmarks to promote effective teaching, learning and comprehensive school improvement

The National School Climate Council has developed a school climate framework that is built around five core standards that address the school’s “vision,” policies, practices, environment, and commitment.

Ntional School Climate Standard. (2010). National School Climate Standards Benchmarks to promote effective teaching, learning and comprehensive school improvement. Retrieved from https://www.schoolclimate.org/themes/schoolclimate/assets/pdf/policy/school-climate-standards.pdf

Equality and Quality in U.S. Education: Systemic Problems, Systemic Solutions. Policy Brief

This paper enters debate about how U.S. schools might address long-standing disparities in educational and economic opportunities while improving the educational outcomes for all students. with a vision and an argument for realizing that vision, based on lessons learned from 60 years of education research and reform efforts. The central points covered draw on a much more extensive treatment of these issues published in 2015. The aim is to spark fruitful discussion among educators, policymakers, and researchers.

O'Day, J. A., & Smith, M. S. (2016). Equality and Quality in US Education: Systemic Problems, Systemic Solutions. Policy Brief. Education Policy Center at American Institutes for Research.

PISA 2015 Results in Focus

Over the past decade, the OECD Programme for International Student Assessment, PISA, has become the world’s premier yardstick for evaluating the quality, equity and efficiency of school systems. This special issue of the PISA in Focus series highlights the results of the first two volumes of the PISA 2015 initial report: Excellence and Equity in Education; and Policies and Practices for Successful Schools.

OECD Publishing (2016). PISA 2015 Results in Focus. PISA in Focus,67. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1787/aa9237e6-en.

Losing our future: How minority youth are being left behind by the graduation rate crisis

This report seeks to highlight some disparities to draw the public’s and policymakers’ attention to the urgent need to address this educational and civil rights crisis. Using a more accurate method for calculating graduation rates, they provide estimates of high school graduation rates, distinguished at the state and district level, and disaggregated by race.

Orfield, G., Losen, D., Wald, J., & Swanson, C. B. (2004). Losing our future: How minority youth are being left behind by the graduation rate crisis. Civil Rights Project at Harvard University (The).

Lessons from PISA for the United States–Strong performers and successful reformers in education

US President Obama has launched one of the world’s most ambitious education reform agendas. Under the heading “Race to the Top”, this agenda encourages US states to adopt internationally benchmarked standards and assessments that prepare students for success in college and the workplace: recruit, develop, reward, and retain effective teachers and principals. 

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). (2011). Lessons from PISA for the United States–Strong performers and successful reformers in education. OECD Publishing. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264096660-en

What To Know & Where To Go: Parents' Guide to No Child Left Behind. A New Era in Education.

This guide for parents outlines what they need to know about the legislation.

Paige, R. (2002). What to know and where to go parent’s guide to no child left behind a new era in education. Washington, DC: US Dept. of Education, Office of the Secretary.

Special Education Finance: Past, Present, and Future. Policy Paper Number 8.

The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief overview of historical trends in the funding of special education programs, to discuss current issues, and to consider alternative directions for the future

Parrish, T. B. (1996). Special Education Finance: Past, Present, and Future. Policy Paper Number 8.

Report Urges Educators to Avoid Using International Test to Make Policy

This articles suggest policymakers to focus less on the international test and more on how states compare to each other when trying to improve schools. This article also shows how it's not worthwhile to compare school in countries where the conditions are different. 

Rabinovitz, j. (2015, October). Report urges educators to avoid using international tests to make policy. Standford Graduate School of Education. Retrieved from https://ed.stanford.edu/news/national-test-superior-international-ones-assessing-us-schools-says-report

The Principal's Role in Creating Inclusive Schools for Diverse Students: A Review of Normative, Empirical, and Critical Literature on the Practice of Educational Administration

Drawing on normative, empirical, and critical literatures, this review explores the role of school administrators in responding to the needs of diverse students. Three administrative tasks are highlighted: fostering new meanings about diversity, promoting inclusive school cultures and instructional programs, and building relationships between schools and communities. 

Riehl, C. J. (2000). The principal's role in creating inclusive schools for diverse students: A review of normative, empirical, and critical literature on the practice of educational administration. Review of educational research70(1), 55-81.

High-stakes testing: Another analysis

Amrein and Berliner (2002b) compared National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) results in high-stakes states against the national average for NAEP scores. In this analysis, a comparison group was formed from states that did not attach consequences to their state-wide tests.

Rosenshine, B. (2003). High-stakes testing: Another analysis. education policy analysis archives11, 24.

A Guide to Calculating District Expenditure-to-Performance Ratios Using Publicly Available Data

Efficient use of educational resources is a perennial challenge for school systems. Maximizing the impact of education interventions to magnify student achievement is an important goal for all school districts. This guide examines the use of expenditure-to-performance ratios as a critical indicator for school systems to help decide which interventions make sense when education dollars are at a premium. It describes how states and districts can use available data on district expenditures and student academic achievement to calculate six district-level expenditure-to-performance ratios.

 

Ryan, S., Lavigne, H. J., Zweig, J. S., & Buffington, P. J. (2017). A guide to calculating district expenditure-to-performance ratios using publicly available data. (REL 2017-179). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Regional Educational Laboratory Northeast & Islands.

 

Revisiting "The Culture of the School and the Problem of Change."

First published in 1971, the book challenged many major assumptions about institutional change and examined efforts to implement Public Law 94-142 (Education for All Handicapped Children) into public schools. The book argued that federal efforts to restructure education were generally a failure.

Sarason, S. B. (1996). Revisiting" The culture of the school and the problem of change". Teachers College Press.

When Bad Things Happen to Good NAEP Data

The National Assessment of Educational Progress is widely viewed as the most accurate and reliable yardstick of U.S. students’ academic knowledge. But when it comes to many of the ways the exam’s data are used, researchers have gotten used to gritting their teeth.

Sawchuk, S. (2013). When bad things happen to good NAEP data. Education Week32(37), 1-22.

A model of learned implementation

The paper provides a review of the literature from two areas: current models of public policy implementation and policy learning. It then goes on to describe the fieldwork which took place with National Health Service capital project teams and the nature of the data analysis which, amongst other techniques, used. 

Schofield, J. (2004). A model of learned implementation. Public administration82(2), 283-308.

The participant effects of private school vouchers across the globe: A meta-analytic and systematic review

Our focus throughout this study will be to see what impact, if any, school voucher programs, in the United States and throughout the world, have had on student test scores. If the findings are mixed, we shall try to determine unique patterns that are driven either by geography or relevant program design components. We will also compare overall outcomes for reading and math scores for programs within the US vs. outside the US and publically funded vs. privately funded programs. This can be helpful for policymakers designing future private school voucher programs. Reading assessments will only be included if they were in English, regardless of the language of the country in which they were administered. We do this to ensure commonality in the international reading assessments and also because the international voucher evaluations in the meta-analysis come from developing countries where English language skills are highly valued.

Shakeel, M., Anderson, K., & Wolf, P. (2016). The participant effects of private school vouchers across the globe: A meta-analytic and systematic review.

Research news and comment: Performance assessments: Political rhetoric and measurement reality

Part of the president Bush strategy for the transformation of "American Schools" lies in an accountability system that would track progress toward the nation's education goals as well as provide the impetus for reform. Here we focus primarily on issues of accountability and student achievement. 

Shavelson, R. J., Baxter, G. P., & Pine, J. (1992). Research news and comment: Performance assessments: Political rhetoric and measurement reality. Educational Researcher21(4), 22-27.

Why We Need Better Assessments.

In today's political climate, standardized tests are inadequate and misleading as achievement measures. Educators should employ a variety of measures, improve standardized test content and format, and remove incentives for teaching to the test. Focusing on raising test scores distorts instruction and renders scores less credible. Includes 13 references.

Shepard, L. A. (1989). Why We Need Better Assessments. Educational leadership46(7), 4-9.

Bridging the Great Divide: Linking Research to Practice

This article define what constitutes a research to practice study and differentiate the terms research to practice and evidence-based practice. 

Shriver, M. D., & Watson, T. S. (2005). Bridging the great divide: Linking research to practice in scholarly publications. Journal of Evidence Based Practices for Schools6, 5-18.

Ensuring teaching and learning in the 21st century

The title of the address is " Ensuring Teaching and Learning in the 21st Century: What We Know and What We Need to Know From Research." The focus is on the plight of children. The author believes a partial solution is integrated comprehensive school-linked services. 

Stallings, J. A. (1995). Ensuring teaching and learning in the 21st century. Educational Researcher24(6), 4-8.

Does a longer school year or longer school day improve student achievement scores?

This reviews looks at the issue, do longer school days and longer school years improve student achievement?

States, J. (2011). Does a longer school year or longer school day improve student achievement scores? Retrieved from does-longer-school-year.

A Promising Approach for Expanding and Sustaining School-Wide Positive Behavior Suppor

This article focuses on the systemic implementation features of SWPBS as a means of increasing the accurate adoption and sustained implementation of effective behavioral practices at the individual student, classroom, and school-wide levels. This article describes SWPBS, suggest how SWPBS might be implemented at broader systems levels, and discuss research and practice implications.

Sugai, G., & Horner, R. R. (2006). A promising approach for expanding and sustaining school-wide positive behavior support. School psychology review35(2), 245.

Trends in teacher mobility in Texas and associations with teacher, student, and school characteristics

This report provides state and district policymakers in Texas with updated information on trends in teacher mobility and on correlates of mobility in the teaching workforce, offering a systematic baseline for monitoring and planning.

Sullivan, K., Barkowski, E., Lindsay, J., Lazarev, V., Nguyen, T., Newman, D., & Lin, L. (2017). Trends in teacher mobility in Texas and associations with teacher, student, and school characteristics. REL 2018–283.

Hey! Don't Forget About Me! Education's Investment in the Severely, Profoundly, and Multiply Handicapped.

Presented are 12 author contributed chapters which developed out of an invisible college of leaders concerned with providing services to the severely, profoundly, and multiply handicappe

Thomas, M. A. (1976). Hey! Don't Forget About Me! Education's Investment in the Severely, Profoundly, and Multiply Handicapped.

School Crime and Policing

This text offers a pragmatic assessment of the role of police and school crime through the perspective of esteemed academicians and practitioners. School Crime and Policing hopes to spark awareness and encourage preparedness for the safety of our schools and our communities.

Turk, W. L. (Ed.). (2004). School crime and policing. Prentice Hall.

Better Uses for Federal Aid to Low-Income Students Studied in New Report

This report highlight suggestions from Nora Gordon report  "Increasing Targeting, Flexibility, and Transparency in Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act to Help Disadvantaged Students.". The paper argues that effective local decisions about spending Title I funds have the biggest "bang for the buck", but that Washington and the states can do better to help locals make better decisions without running afoul of the grants program's requirements. 

Ujifusa, A. (2016). Better Uses for Federal Aid to Low-Income Students Studied in New Report. Education Week. Retrieved from https://blogs.edweek.org/edweek/campaign-k-12/2016/03/title_i_changes_to_help_low_income_students.html

How does the rich-poor learning gap vary across countries?

This article show different approach that researcher took to answer questions on social gradient in education between the countries. Comparing some of these results highlights weak service delivery in many developing countries. Even where resources may be similar, social gradients are steep in some, indicating much worse educational outcomes for the poor. And public resources are often extremely poorly converted into learning. The differential ability of schools and school systems to convert resources into learning outcomes remains a major impediment to improving educational outcomes, and indeed life chances, for the poor.

Van Der Berg, S. (2015). How does the rich-poor learning gap vary across countries?. Brookings Institution. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/blog/future-development/2015/03/09/how-does-the-rich-poor-learning-gap-vary-across-countries/

Using data to advance learning outcomes in schools

This article describes the emergence and influence of evidence-based practice and data-based decision making in educational systems. This article describes the ways in which evidence-based practice (EBP) and  response to intervention (RtI) can be used to improve efficacy, efficiency, and equity of educational services. 

VanDerHeyden, A., & Harvey, M. (2013). Using data to advance learning outcomes in schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions15(4), 205-213.

Teach for America: A Return to the Evidence

The authors recommend a shift in focus for TFA from a program of mixed impact to one that makes measureable changes in the quality of education in America. Recommendations for policymakers and districts are provided.

Vasquez Heilig, J., & Jez, S. J. (2014). Teach For America: A return to the evidence.

Minimum Drinking Age and Alcohol Availability to Youth: Issues and Research Needs

This article discusses the effects of minimum drinking age on alcohol use, effects of minimum drinking age on traffic crashes, effect of minimum drinking age on other health and social problems. In the end, the author calls for research needs on youth alcohol availability. 

Wagenaar, A. C. (1993). Minimum drinking age and alcohol availability to youth: Issues and research needs. Economics and the Prevention of Alcohol-Related Problems. Rockville, MD: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 175-200.

The Legal Minimum Drinking Age in Texas: Effects of an Increase from 18 to 19

Effects on motor vehicle crash involvement of raising the legal drinking age in Texas from 18 to 19 were examined, using an interrupted time-series design. It is clear that the l-year increase in legal age in Texas had a significant effect on youth crash involvement. 

Wagenaar, A. C., & Maybee, R. G. (1986). The legal minimum drinking age in Texas: Effects of an increase from 18 to 19. Journal of safety research17(4), 165-178.

Preventing Injuries to Children Through Compulsory Automobile Safety Seat Use

Effects of Michigan's law requiring all young children to be restrained when traveling in automobiles were assessed. Data on all reported residents of the state who were involved in crashes from 1978 through 1983 were examined using times-series analysis methods.

Wagenaar, A. C., & Webster, D. W. (1986). Preventing injuries to children through compulsory automobile safety seat use. Pediatrics78(4), 662-672.

Getting to outcomes: A results-based approach to accountability

This article presents a brief description of a manual called Getting to outcomes: methods and tools for planning, evaluation, and accountability (GTO) designed to assist practitioners in formulating the planning, implementation, and evaluation strategies for programs and policies. 

Wandersman, A., Imm, P., Chinman, M., & Kaftarian, S. (2000). Getting to outcomes: A results-based approach to accountability. Evaluation and program planning23(3), 389-395.

Educating the Disadvantaged

This article discuss how policymakers continued to search way through several approach to improve academic outcomes and life chances for low-income students.

Wax, A. L. (2019). Educating the Disadvantaged. National Affairs, no.40. Retrieved from https://www.nationalaffairs.com/publications/detail/educating-the-disadvantaged

Educating children with learning problems: A shared responsibility

Developed by the Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS), this report presents current weaknesses in the education of students with learning problems (those having difficulties learning for any of a variety of reasons) and suggested strategies for correcting those weaknesses.

Will, M. C. (1986). Educating children with learning problems: A shared responsibility. Exceptional children, 52(5), 411-415.

The Cost-Effectiveness of Five Policies for Improving Student Achievement

This study compares the effect size and return on investment for rapid assessment, between, increased spending, voucher programs, charter schools, and increased accountability.

Yeh, S. S. (2007). The cost-effectiveness of five policies for improving student achievement. American Journal of Evaluation, 28(4), 416-436.

The Cost-Effectiveness of Five Policies for Improving Student Achievement

This article compares the relative cost-effectiveness of the five policies, using best-evidence estimates drawn from available data regarding the effectiveness and costs of rapid assessment, increased spending, voucher programs, charter schools, and accountability, using a conservative methodology for calculating the relative effectiveness of the rapid assessment.

Yeh, S. S. (2007). The cost-effectiveness of five policies for improving student achievement. American Journal of Evaluation28(4), 416-436.

From Policy to Practice: Evidence-based Practice and IDEIA
No Child Left Behind (NCLB) as federal policy required the use of scientifically based instruction to improve educational outcomes. It is a long way from policy to impacting what actually happens in a classroom. In this chapter, the author reviews what is known from implementation science to assure that policy becomes practice.
Detrich, R. (2008). From Policy to Practice: Evidence-based Practice and IDEIA. In Grigorenko, E. L. (Ed.) Educating Individuals with Disabilities: IDEIA 2004 and Beyond, 85. Springer Publishing Company
A Decade of Evidence-Based Education: Where Are We and Where Do We Need to Go?
No Child Left Behind (NCLB) emphasizing scientifically based instruction became law in 2001. In this paper, the authors review the progress that has been made in implementing NCLB and conclude that the greatest threat to its effectiveness is the quality of the implementation of the scientifically based instructional practices.
Detrich, R., & Lewis, T. (2012). A Decade of Evidence-Based Education: Where Are We and Where Do We Need to Go?. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 1098300712460278.
Overview and Inventory of State Education Reforms: 1990 to 2000
This report describes the education reform efforts in the United Stats in the 1990’s.
Hurst, D., Tan, A., Meek, A., and Sellers, J. (2003). Overview and inventory of state education reforms: 1990 to 2000. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.
Making Sense in Education: Pretense (Including No Child Left Behind) and Realities in Rhetoric and Policy About Schools and Schooling
This paper discusses possible serious flaws in current education reform efforts that need to be addressed if there is hope for success. These issues include: measurement, statistical distributions, measurement error, labels, special services, teacher responsibilities, and teacher training.
Kauffman, J. M., & Konold, T. R. (2007). Making sense in education: Pretense (including No Child Left Behind) and realities in rhetoric and policy about schools and schooling. Exceptionality, 15(2), 75-96.
Are Bad Schools Immortal? The Scarcity of Turnarounds and Shutdowns in Both Charter and District Sectors
This study investigates the successes of the charter and district sectors in eliminating bad schools via dramatic turnarounds in performance and/or shutdowns.
Stuit, D. A. (2010). Are Bad Schools Immortal? The Scarcity of Turnarounds and Shutdowns in Both Charter and District Sectors. Thomas B. Fordham Institute.
The cost-effectiveness of raising teacher quality.
This study examines the econometric impact of educational practices on student achievement.
Yeh, S. S. (2009). The cost-effectiveness of raising teacher quality. Educational Research Review, 4(3), 220-232.
TITLE
SYNOPSIS
Alliance for Excellent Education
This organization is a national policy and advocacy organization dedicated to ensuring that all students graduate from high school ready for success in college, work, and citizenship.
America Achieves | Home
America Achieves draws upon experts with proven track records to identify and support exemplar initiatives and programs in education.
American Education Research Association (AERA)
This national organization works to advance the public good through advocacy and the promotion of rigorous research in education.
American Enterprise Institute
AEI is a private, nonpartisan, not-for-profit institution dedicated to research and education on issues of government, politics, economics and social welfare.
American Institutes for Research (AIR)
AIR is one of the world's largest behavioral and social science research and evaluation organizations. Its research focus includes most aspects of K-12 education.
Bellwether Education Partners
Bellwether Education Partners is a nonprofit dedicated to helping education organizations in the public, private, and nonprofit sectors.
Brown Center on Educational Policy
This is national nonprofit public policy organization that conducts research and makes recommendations on a awide range of issues affecting American K-12 education.
Campbell Collaboration (C2)

The organization promotes well-informed decision making by preparing, maintaining and disseminating systematic reviews in education, crime and justice, social welfare and international development.

Center for American Progress
The Center for American Progress is an independent nonpartisan policy institute provides research, analyses and advocacy on a wide range of education issues.
Center for Education Policy Analysis (CEPA)
CEPA is a research center focusing education policy issues including Poverty and Inequality; Federal and State Education Policy; Technological Innovations in Education; and Teaching and Leadership Effectiveness.
Center for Public Education (CPE)
The Center for Public Education provides up-to-date research, data, and analysis on current education issues and explores ways to improve student achievement and engage public support for public schools.
Center for Research and Reform in Education (CRRE)
CRRE is a research center who’s major goal is to improve the quality of education through high-quality research and evaluation studies and the dissemination of evidence-based research.
Center on Education Policy (CEP)
CEP is a national, independent advocate for public education and for more effective public schools.
Center on Great Teachers and Leaders
The Center on Great Teachers and Leaders (GTL Center) is dedicated to supporting state education leaders in their efforts to grow, respect, andretain great teachers and leaders for all students.
Center on Innovations in Learning
The Center on Innovations in Learning is funded by the United States Department of Education. It focuses on increasing the capacity of state education agencies and regional comprehensive centers.
Center on Reinventing Public Education
CRPE’s research and policy analysis is focused on addressing the complex systemic challenges affecting public education.
Common Core of Data (CCD)
CCD is a program of the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Education Statistics that annually collects fiscal and non-fiscal data about all public schools, public school districts and state education agencies in the United States
Condition of Education
The Condition of Education is an annual report on key indicators of the U.S. education system. It is published by the Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education.
Consortium for Policy Research in Education (CPRE)
CPRE looks at issues of teacher compensation, school finance, and principal evaluation for PK20.
Data Quality Campaign
This nonprofit organization promotes the systematic and outcome driven use of data at all levels of education
National Council on Teacher Quality (NCTQ)

The National Council on Teacher Quality works to achieve fundamental changes in the policy and practices of teacher preparation programs, school districts, state governments, and teachers unions.

New Individuals with Disabilities Act Website

In early February, the IDEA hosted website that provides special education resources disappeared prompting concern among some in the special education community and members of Congress that the new administration was permanently eliminating this support for special education. After a prolonged outage, the U.S. Department of Education Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) website, has been revamped and is now back online. The website offers useful information on special education law and policy, topic area reports, grants and funding resources, links to outside resources, and a blog for use by policy makers, parents and educators.

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