School Climate (discipline, safety)

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Mental health in schools and system restructuring.

 This review (a) provides an overview of what schools currently do related to mental health and psychosocial concerns, (b) clarifies key emerging trends, and (c) explores implications for major systemic changes.

Adelman, H. S., & Taylor, L. (1999). Mental health in schools and system restructuring. Clinical Psychology Review19(2), 137-163.

The Link Between School Attendance and Good Health.

The American Academy of Pediatrics just released a policy statement regarding the negative impact that chronic student absenteeism has on children’s health. They cite numerous ways the two are linked. The policy statement finishes with a discussion of roles the medical community can play working with schools and families to help address this problem. 

 

Allison, M. A., & Attisha, E. (2019). The Link Between School Attendance and Good Health. Pediatrics, e20183648.

 

ACHIEVEMENT AND ENROLLMENT STATUS OF SUSPENDED STUDENTS: Outcomes in a Large, Multicultural School District

This article presents the results of longitudinal retrospective analyses on suspensions, achievement, and long-term enrollment status of students in a large, urban school district. Findings indicated that suspended students had substantially lower presuspension achievement than did students in the comparison group, gained considerably less academically throughout 3 years with suspensions, and had high drop-out rates.

Arcia, E. (2006). Achievement and enrollment status of suspended students: Outcomes in a large, multicultural school district. Education and Urban Society38(3), 359-369.

Opportunities suspended: The devastating consequences of zero tolerance and school discipline policies. Report from a national summit on zero tolerance.

This is the first comprehensive national report to scrutinize the impact of strict Zero Tolerance approach in the America public school. This report illustrate that Zero Tolerance is unfair, is contrary to developmental needs of children, denies children educational opportunities, and often results in the criminalization of children. 

Civil Rights Project. (2000). Opportunities suspended: The devastating consequences of zero tolerance and school discipline policies.

Reconceptualizing behavior management and school-wide discipline in general education.

The purpose of this appear is to describe a school-wide staff development model that is based on a proactive instructional approach to solving problem behavior on a school-wide basis and utilizes effective staff development procedures. 

Colvin, G., Kameenui, E. J., & Sugai, G. (1993). Reconceptualizing behavior management and school-wide discipline in general education. Education and treatment of children, 361-381.

California's Anti-Vaxxers Grow More Aggressive as They're Challenged

The opinion article discuss about anti-vaxxers activist grow more aggressive while more study and evidence show how vaccination is important. The author suggest that the Lawmakers must stand up to the anti-vaccination crowd, a very small minority according to every poll. 

Elias, T.D, (2019). California's Anti-Vaxxers Grow More Aggressive as They're Challenged. Los Angeles Daily News. Retrieved from https://www.dailynews.com/2019/04/19/californias-anti-vaxxers-grow-more-aggressive-as-theyre-challenged/

Research on School Bullying and Victimization: What Have We Learned and Where Do We Go from Here?

this paper is a mini-series from Scool Psychology Review. This special issue review highlights current research effort in American schools on bullying and peer victimization. and how this research can inform prevention and intervention planning. 

Espelage, D. L., & Swearer Napolitano, S. M. (2003). Research on school bullying and victimization: What have we learned and where do we go from here?[Mini-series].

Learning in urban blights: School climate and its effect on the school performance of urban, minority, low-income children

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between school climate and children's academic and social development in the early elementary school years, controlling for maternal education and family resources, and to determine whether factors underlying school climate influence those outcomes. 

Esposito, C. (1999). Learning in urban blights: School climate and its effect on the school performance of urban, minority, low-income children. School Psychology Review28(3), 365.

A Review of Schoolwide Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports as a Framework for Reducing Disciplinary Exclusions

The purpose of this study is to conduct a systematic meta-analysis of RCTs on SWPBIS. Ninety schools, including both elementary and high schools, met criteria to be included in this study. A statistically significant large treatment effect (g = −.86) was found for reducing school suspension. No treatment effect was found for office discipline referrals.

Gage, N.A., Whitford, D.K. and Katsiyannis, A., 2018. A review of schoolwide positive behavior interventions and supports as a framework for reducing disciplinary exclusions. The Journal of Special Education, p.0022466918767847.

Teachers' Sense of Efficacy and the Organizational Health of Schools

This study examined the relationships between 2 carefully specified dimensions of teacher efficacy (general and personal teaching efficacy) and aspects of a healthy school climate (institutional integrity, principal influence, consideration, resource support, morale, and academic emphasis).

Hoy, W. K., & Woolfolk, A. E. (1993). Teachers' sense of efficacy and the organizational health of schools. The elementary school journal93(4), 355-372.

Open schools, healthy schools: measuring organizational climate

This book offers the basis for answering these and other questions. The authors demonstrate the significant relationship that exists between school health and academic performance. They then present the measures, developed over many years of careful research, that can best test the organizational climate of any school.

Hoy, W. K., Tarter, C. J., & Kottkamp, R. B. (1991). Open schools, healthy schools: Measuring organizational climate. Corwin Press.

Restorative justice in Oakland schools. Implementation and impact: An effective strategy to reduce racially disproportionate discipline, suspensions, and improve academic outcomes.

This study examines the impact of The Whole School Restorative Justice Program (WSRJ). WSRJ utilizes a multi-tiered strategy. Tier 1 is regular classroom circles, Tier 2 is repair harm/conflict circles, and Tier 3 includes mediation, family group conferencing, and welcome/re-entry circles to initiate successful re-integration of students being released from juvenile detention centers.The key findings of this report show decreased problem behavior, improved school climate, and improved student achievement. 

Jain, S., Bassey, H., Brown, M. A., & Kalra, P. (2014). Restorative justice in Oakland schools. Implementation and impact: An effective strategy to reduce racially disproportionate discipline, suspensions, and improve academic outcomes. Retrieved from http://www.rjtica.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/OUSD-RJ-Report-full.pdf

Demonstrating the Experimenting Society Model with Classwide Behavior Management Interventions

Demonstrates the experimenting society model using data-based decision making and collaborative consultation to evaluate behavior-management intervention strategies in 25 seventh graders. Each intervention results in improved behavior, but active teaching of classroom rules was determined to be most effective. 

Johnson, T. C., Stoner, G., & Green, S. K. (1996). Demonstrating the Experimenting Society Model with Classwide Behavior Management Interventions. School Psychology Review25(2), 199-214.

How Well Are American Students Learning? With Sections on the Latest International test Scores, Foreign Exchange Students, and School Suspensions

This Brown Center Report (BCR) on American Education is the sixth and final edition in the third volume and the 16th issue overall. The series began in 2000. As in the past, the report comprises three studies. Also in keeping with tradition, the first section features recent results from state, national, or international assessments; the second section investigates a thematic topic in education, either by collecting new data or by analyzing existing empirical evidence in a novel way; and the third section looks at one or more education policies.

Loveless, T. (2017). How Well Are American Students Learning? With Sections on the Latest International test Scores, Foreign Exchange Students, and School Suspensions.  The 2-17 Brown Center Report on American Education. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/2017-brown-center-report-on-american-education.pdf

Blueprints for violence prevention

This Report describes the Blueprints programs, presents lessons learned about program implementation, and provides recommendations for program designers, funders, and implementing agencies and organizations.

Mihalic, S., Ballard, D., Michalski, A., Tortorice, J., Cunningham, L., & Argamaso, S. (2002). Blueprints for violence prevention, violence initiative: Final process evaluation report. Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence, Institute of Behavioral Science, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO.

K–12 education: Discipline disparities for black students, boys, and students with disabilities.

This report examines: (1) patterns in disciplinary actions among public K-12 schools; (2) challenges selected school districts have with student behavior and how they approach school discipline; and (3) actions the Departments of Education and Justice have taken to identify and address disparities or discrimination in school discipline.

Nowicki, J. M. (2018). K-12 Education: Discipline Disparities for Black Students, Boys, and Students with Disabilities. Report to Congressional Requesters. GAO-18-258. US Government Accountability Office.

Teacher classroom management practices: Effects on disruptive or aggressive student behavior.

This Campbell systematic review examines the effect of multi‐component teacher classroom management programmes on disruptive or aggressive student behaviour and which management components are most effective.

Oliver, R. M., Wehby, J. H., & Reschly, D. J. (2011). Teacher classroom management practices: Effects on disruptive or aggressive student behavior. Campbell Systematic Reviews7(1), 1-55.

The Principal's Role in Creating Inclusive Schools for Diverse Students: A Review of Normative, Empirical, and Critical Literature on the Practice of Educational Administration

Drawing on normative, empirical, and critical literatures, this review explores the role of school administrators in responding to the needs of diverse students. Three administrative tasks are highlighted: fostering new meanings about diversity, promoting inclusive school cultures and instructional programs, and building relationships between schools and communities. 

Riehl, C. J. (2000). The principal's role in creating inclusive schools for diverse students: A review of normative, empirical, and critical literature on the practice of educational administration. Review of educational research70(1), 55-81.

Interventions for academic and behavior problems II: Preventive and remedial approaches

As the successor to one of NASP's most popular publications, Interventions for Academic and Behavior Problems II offers the latest in evidence-based measures that have proven to create safer, more effective schools.

Shinn, M. R., Walker, H. M., & Stoner, G. E. (2002). Interventions for academic and behavior problems II: Preventive and remedial approaches. National Association of School Psychologists.

The evolution of discipline practices: School-wide positive behavior supports

The thesis of this paper is that the current problem behavior of students in elementary and middle schools requires a preventive, whole-school approach. The foundation for such an approach lies in the emerging technology of positive behavior support. 

Sugai, G., & Horner, R. (2002). The evolution of discipline practices: School-wide positive behavior supports. Child & Family Behavior Therapy24(1-2), 23-50.

Middle School Climate, Faculty Trust, and Effectiveness: A Path Analysis.

Reports a study that analyzed relationships among supportive principal behavior, faculty collegiality, faculty trust, and effectiveness. Data from 2,777 middle school teachers indicated that supportive principals, not teacher behavior, promoted trust in the principal. Teacher collegiality, not principal behavior, fostered trust among colleagues.

Tarter, C. J. (1995). Middle School Climate, Faculty Trust, and Effectiveness: A Path Analysis. Journal of Research and development in Education29(1), 41-49.

The organizational climate of schools

Even when schools within a system reflect closely the demands of their progenitor and achieve both the appearance and reality of a high degree of similarity, differences do exist. The organizational climate of schools is one such difference. 

Thomas, A. R. (1976). The organizational climate of schools. International Review of Education22(4), 441-463.

School Crime and Policing

This text offers a pragmatic assessment of the role of police and school crime through the perspective of esteemed academicians and practitioners. School Crime and Policing hopes to spark awareness and encourage preparedness for the safety of our schools and our communities.

Turk, W. L. (Ed.). (2004). School crime and policing. Prentice Hall.

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