The main focus of this study is to find different kinds of variables that might contribute to variations in the strength and direction of the relationship by examining quantitative studies that relate mathematics teachers’ subject matter knowledge to student achievement in mathematics.
Ahn, S., & Choi, J. (2004). Teachers' Subject Matter Knowledge as a Teacher Qualification: A Synthesis of the Quantitative Literature on Students' Mathematics Achievement. Online Submission.
Two experiments are reported which test the effect of increased three-term contingency trials on students' correct and incorrect math responses. The results warrant further research to test whether or not rates of presentation of three-term contingency trials are predictors of effective instruction.
Albers, A. E., & Greer, R. D. (1991). Is the three-term contingency trial a predictor of effective instruction?. Journal of Behavioral Education, 1(3), 337-354.
This book is an analysis of important conceptual and practical issues that face special education professionals.
Algozzine, J. E., Thurlow, M., & Ysseldyke, J. E. (2000). Critical issues in special education.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a classroom-teacher-delivered reading intervention for struggling readers called the Targeted Reading Intervention (TRI), designed particularly for kindergarten and first-grade teachers and their struggling students in rural, low-wealth communities.
Amendum, S. J., Vernon-Faegans, L. V., & Ginsberg, M. C. (2011). The effectiveness of a technologically facilitated classroom-based early reading intervention. The Elementary School Journal, 112, 107-131.
Value-Added Models (VAMs) has been embraced by many states and school districts as part of educational accountability systems. Value-Added Assessment (VAA) Models attempt to estimate effects of individual teachers or schools on student achievement while accounting for differences in student background. This paper provides a summary of the American Statistical Associations analysis of the efficacy of value-added modeling in education.
American Statistical Association. (2014). ASA statement on using value-added models for educational assessment. Alexandria, VA.
The purpose of this study is to assess whether academic achievement in fact increases after the introduction of high-stakes tests. The first objective of this study is to assess whether academic achievement has improved since the introduction of high-stakes testing policies in the 27 states with the highest stakes written into their grade 1-8 testing policies.
Amrein-Beardsley, A., & Berliner, D. C. (2002). The Impact of High-Stakes Tests on Student Academic Performance.
This article discusses instructional coaching as well as the eight factors that can increase the likelihood that coaching will be a real fix for a school. Instructional coaching holds much potential for improving the way teachers teach and the way students learn, but that potential will only be realized if leaders plan their coaching program with care.
Annenburg Institute for School Reform. (2004). Instructional Coaching: Professional development strategies that improve instruction.Retrieved from: http://www.annenberginstitute.org/publications/professional-development-strategies-professional-learning-communitiesinstructional-coac
A report by TNTP finds 99 percent of teachers are rated good or great, confirming related findings that evaluation systems are not meaningfully differentiating teachers or providing useful feedback. TNTP recommends states use student growth as one measure of teacher effectiveness.
Aragon, S. (2018). Teacher Evaluations: What Is the Issue and Why Does It Matter? Policy Snapshot. Education Commission of the States.
This paper evaluates the impact of a performance-related pay scheme for teachers in England.
Atkinson, A., Burgess, S., Croxson, B., Gregg, P., Propper, C., Slater, H., & Wilson, D. (2009). Evaluating the impact of performance-related pay for teachers in England. Labour Economics, 16(3), 251-261.
This research objective was to study soft skills of new teachers in the secondary schools of Khon Kaen Secondary Educational Service Area 25, Thailand. The data were collected from 60 purposive samples of new teachers by interviewing and questionnaires. The results of this study were informed that new teachers have all of soft skills at high level totally. Communicative skills were highest among seven of soft skills and next Life-long learning and information management skills, Critical and problem solving skills, Team work skills, Ethics, moral and professional skills, Leadership skills and Innovation invention and development skills were lowest in all skills. Based on the research findings obtained, the sub-skills of seven soft skills will be considered and utilized in the package of teacher development program of next research.
Attakorn, K., Tayut, T., Pisitthawat, K., & Kanokorn, S. (2014). Soft skills of new teachers in the secondary schools of Khon Kaen Secondary Educational Service Area 25, Thailand. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 112, 1010-1013.
There is also little or no evidence for the claim that teachers will be more motivated to improve student learning if teachers are evaluated or monetarily rewarded for student test score gains.
Baker, E. L., Barton, P. E., Darling-Hammond, L., Haertel, E., Ladd, H. F., Linn, R. L., ... & Shepard, L. A. (2010). Problems with the Use of Student Test Scores to Evaluate Teachers. EPI Briefing Paper# 278. Economic Policy Institute.
Bad teachers were the problem; good teachers were the solution. It was a simplified binary, but the idea and the research it drew on had spurred policy changes across the country, including a spate of laws establishing new evaluation systems designed to reward top teachers and help weed out low performers. Behind that effort was the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, which backed research and advocacy that ultimately shaped these changes.
Barnum, M. (2018, June 21). The Gates Foundation bet big on teacher evaluation. The report it commissioned explains how those efforts fell short. Chalkbeat.Retrieved from https://www.chalkbeat.org/posts/us/2018/06/21/the-gates-foundation-bet-big-on-teacher-evaluation-the-report-it-commissioned-explains-how-those-efforts-fell-short/
This article focuses on one method of follow-up: performance feedback
Barton, E. E., Kinder, K., Casey, A. M., & Artman, K. M. (2011). Finding your feedback fit: Strategies for designing and delivering performance feedback systems. Young Exceptional Children, 14(1), 29–46. doi: 10.1177/1096250610395459
In fall 2009, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation launched the Measures of Effective Teaching (MET) project to test new approaches to measuring effective teaching. The goal of the MET project is to improve the quality of information about teaching effectiveness available to education professionals within states and districts.
Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. (2010). Learning about teaching: Initial findings from the measures of effective teaching project.Retrieved from https://docs.gatesfoundation.org/documents/preliminary-findings-research-paper.pdf
In this paper, we consider traditions of research on teaching and how conceptions of good teaching evolved as traditions changed.
Blanton, L. P., Sindelar, P. T., Correa, V., Harman, M., McDonnell, J., & Kuhel, K. (2003). Conceptions of beginning teacher quality: Models for conducting research(COPSSE Doc. No. RS-6). Gainesville, FL: Center on Personnel Studies in Special Education (COPSSE), University of Florida. Retrieved from http://copsse.education.ufl.edu//docs/RS-6/1/RS-6.pdf
Over the objection of the teachers' union, the Board of Education here on Thursday unanimously approved the nation's largest merit pay program, which calls for rewarding teachers based on how well their students perform on standardizes tests.
Blumenthal, R. (2006). Houston ties teachers’ pay to test scores. New York Times, 13.
This article examines the effectiveness and related issues of current methods of principal evaluation of teachers.
Burns M. (2011). Do Principals Know Good Teaching When They See It?. Educational policy, 19(1), 155-180.
This paper examines how to measure teacher performance and the practices necessary for increasing teacher trust in systems designed to effectively measure performance.
Cantrell, S., & Scantlebury, J. (2011). Effective Teaching: What Is It and How Is It Measured?. Effective Teaching as a Civil Right, 28.
This book provide detailed information on how to systematically and explicitly teach essential reading skills. The procedures describe in this text have been shown to benefit all student, especially powerful with the most vulnerable learners, children who are at risk because of poverty, disability, or limited knowledge of English.
Carnine, D., Silbert, J., Kameenui, E. J., & Tarver, S. G. (1997). Direct instruction reading. Columbus, OH: Merrill.
This paper presents the results from a field experiment that examines the effects of nonfinancial performance feedback on the behavior of professionals working for an insurance repair company.
Casas‐Arce, P. A. B. L. O., Lourenço, S. M., & MARTÍNEZ‐JEREZ, F. A. (2017). The performance effect of feedback frequency and detail: Evidence from a field experiment in customer satisfaction. Journal of Accounting Research, 55(5), 1051-1088.
This report presents case studies of the efforts by three school districts, Hillsborough County Public Schools (HCPS), Memphis City Schools (MCS), and Pittsburgh Public Schools (PPS), to launch, implement, and operate new teacher evaluation systems as part of a larger reform effort called the Partnership Sites to Empower Effective Teaching.
Chambers, J., Brodziak de los Reyes, I., & O'Neil, C. (2013). How Much are Districts Spending to Implement Teacher Evaluation Systems?.
This paper examines the issue of efficacy of value-added measures in evaluating teachers. This question is important in understanding whether value-added analysis provides unbiased estimates of teachers’ impact on student achievement and whether these teachers improve long-term student outcomes.
Chetty, R., Friedman, J. N., & Rockoff, J. E. (2011). The long-term impacts of teachers: Teacher value-added and student outcomes in adulthood (No. w17699). National Bureau of Economic Research.
This overview provides information about teacher evaluation as it relates to collecting information about teacher practice and using it to improve student outcomes. The history of teacher evaluation and current research findings and implications are included.
Cleaver, S., Detrich, R. & States, J. (2018). Overview of Teacher Evaluation. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/assessment-summative.
The purpose of this overview is to provide information about teacher coaching as it is used in schools, the research that examines this practice as a method of teacher professional development, and its impact on student outcomes.
Cleaver, S., Detrich, R. & States, J. (2018). Overview of Teacher Evaluation. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/teacher-evaluation-teacher-coaching.
The purpose of this overview is to provide information about the role of formal teacher evaluation, the research that examines the practice, and its impact on student outcomes.
Cleaver, S., Detrich, R. & States, J. (2018). Overview of Teacher Formal Evaluation. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute.https://www.winginstitute.org/teacher-evaluation-formal.
This overview examines the current understanding of research on performance feedback as a way to improve teacher performance and student outcomes.
Cleaver, S., Detrich, R. & States, J. (2019). Overview of Performance Feedback. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/teacher-evaluation-feedback.
The purpose of this overview is to provide information about informal evaluation as a practice in schools, and the current understanding of research related to informal teacher evaluation to improve teacher performance and student outcomes.
Cleaver, S., Detrich, R., & States, J. (2019). Informal Teacher Evaluation. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. Retrieved from https://www.winginstitute.org/staff-informal.
The study compares the effectiveness of different routes to teaching. It finds there is no significant difference in the effectiveness of teachers who were traditionally trained when compared to teachers who obtained training through alternative credential programs.
Constantine, J., D. Player, T. Silva, K. Hallgren, M. Grider, and J. Deke, 2009. An Evaluation of Teachers Trained Through Different Routes to Certification, Final Report (NCEE 2009- 4043). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education.
This book is a comprehensive description of the principles and procedures for systematic change of socially significant behavior. It includes basic principles, applications, and behavioral research methods.
Cooper, J. O., Heron, T. E., & Heward, W. L. (2007). Applied behavior analysis.
In this report, the author aim to provide an accessible introduction to these new measures of teaching quality and put them into the broader context of concerns over school quality and achievement gaps.
Corcoran, S. P. (2010). Can Teachers Be Evaluated by Their Students' Test Scores? Should They Be? The Use of Value-Added Measures of Teacher Effectiveness in Policy and Practice. Education Policy for Action Series. Annenberg Institute for School Reform at Brown University (NJ1).
The author reviewed about 1,000 articles to synthesize 119 studies from 1948 to 2004 with 1,450 findings and 355,325 students. The meta-analysis design followed Mackay, Barkham, Rees, and Stiles’s guidelines, including comprehensive search mechanisms, accuracy and bias control, and primary study validity assessment.
Cornelius-White, J. (2007). Learner-centered teacher-student relationships are effective: A meta-analysis. Review of educational research, 77(1), 113-143.
The framework for teaching is a research-based set of components of instruction that are grounded in a constructivist view of learning and teaching. The framework defines four levels of performance--Unsatisfactory, Basic, Proficient, and Distinguished--for each element, providing a valuable tool that all teachers can use.
Danielson, C. (2007). Enhancing professional practice: A framework for teaching. ASCD.
This article addresses the topics of staff assessment, teacher supervision, and professional development.
Danielson, C. (2011). Evaluations that help teachers learn. Educational leadership, 68(4), 35-39.
The Framework for Teaching identifies those aspects of a teacher's responsibilities that have
been documented through empirical studies and theoretical research as promoting
improved student learning.
Danielson, C. (2013). The framework for teaching evaluation instrument, 2013 instructionally focused edition. Retrieved from http://usny.nysed.gov/rttt/teachers-leaders/practicerubrics/Docs/danielson-teacher-rubric-2013-instructionally-focused.pdf
In this article the authors examine some design principles to guide policy-makers and school reformers who seek to promote learner-centred professional development which involves teachers as active and reflective participants in the change process.
Darling-Hammond, L., & McLaughlin, M. W. (1995). Policies that support professional development in an era of reform. Phi Delta Kappan, 76(8), 597–604.
Popular modes of evaluating teachers are fraught with inaccuracies and inconsistencies, but the field has identified better approaches. Value-added models enable researchers to use statistical methods to measure changes in student scores over time while considering student characteristics and other factors often found to influence achievement.
Darling-Hammond, L., Amrein-Beardsley, A., Haertel, E., & Rothstein, J. (2012). Evaluating teacher evaluation: Popular modes of evaluating teachers are fraught with inaccuracies and inconsistencies, but the field has identified better approaches. Phi Delta Kappan, 93(6), 8–15.Retrieved from https://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2012/03/01/kappan_hammond.html
This article presents a conceptual framework for examining the design and implementation of teacher evaluation processes in school organizations.
Darling-Hammond, L., Wise, A. E., & Pease, S. R. (1983). Teacher evaluation in the organizational context: A review of the literature. Review of educational research, 53(3), 285-328.
A growing number of researchers are studying whether value-added measures can do a good job of measuring the contribution of teachers to test score growth. Here I summarize a handful of analyses that shed light on two questions.
David, J. L. (2010). What research says about using value-added measures to evaluate teachers. Educational Leadership, 67(8), 81–82. Retrieved from http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational_leadership/may10/vol67/num08/Using_Value-Added_Measures_to_Evaluate_Teachers.aspx
This study uses data collected in the intervention classrooms of Head Start REDI (Research- based, Developmentally Informed), a randomized clinical trial testing the efficacy of a comprehensive preschool curriculum targeting children’s social-emotional competence, language, and emergent literacy skills delivered by teachers who received weekly coaching support.
Domitrovich, C. E., Gest, S. D., Jones, D., Gill, S., & DeRousie, R. M. S. (2010). Implementation quality: Lessons learned in the context of the Head Start REDI trial. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 25(3), 284-298.
The Three-Minute Classroom Walk-Through offers a practical, time-saving alternative that impacts student achievement by cultivating self-reliant teachers who are continuously improving their practice.
Downey, C. J., Steffy, B. E., English, F. W., Frase, L. E., & Poston, W. K. (2004). The three-minute classroom walkthrough: Changing school supervisory practice one teacher at a time. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
Principals are in a paradoxical position. On one hand, they're called on to use research-based strategies to improve student achievement. On the other, they're increasingly required to micromanage teachers by observing in classrooms and engaging in intensive evaluation. The authors point out that these two positions are at odds with each other.
Dufour, R., & Mattos, M. (2013). How Do Principals Really Improve Schools?. Educational Leadership, 70(7), 34-40.
This paper summarizes survey results about the acceptability of different methods for monitoring treatment integrity and performance feedback.
Easton, J. E., & Erchul, W. P. (2011). An Exploration of Teacher Acceptability of Treatment Plan Implementation: Monitoring and Feedback Methods. Journal of Educational & Psychological Consultation, 21(1), 56-77. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10474412.2011.544949?journalCode=hepc20.
In this paper we take up the question of model choice and examine three competing approaches. The first approach, (SGPs) framework, eschews all controls for student covariates and schooling environments. The second approach, value-added models (VAMs), controls for student background characteristics and under some conditions can be used to identify the causal effects of schools and teachers. The third approach, also VAM-based, fully levels the playing field so that the correlation between school- and teacher-level growth measures and student demographics is essentially zero. We argue that the third approach is the most desirable for use in educational evaluation systems.
Ehlert, M., Koedel, C., Parsons, E., & Podgursky, M. (2013). Selecting growth measures for school and teacher evaluations: Should proportionality matter?. National Center for Analysis of Longitudinal Data in Education Research, 21.
This monograph presents a synthesis of the literature on empirically supported effective teaching principles that have been derived from research on behavioral, cognitive, social-learning, and other theories.
Ellis, E. S., Worthington, L. A., & Larkin, M. J. (1994). research synthesis on effective teaching principles and the design of quality tools for educators.(Tech. Rep. No. 6). Eugene, OR: University of Oregon, National Center to Improve the Tools of Educators.
Classroom management is a topic of enduring concern for teachers, administrators, and the public. It consistently ranks as the first or second most serious educational problem in the eyes of the general public, and beginning teachers consistently rank it as their most pressing concern during their early teaching years. Management problems continue to be a major cause of teacher burnout and job dissatisfaction. Strangely, despite this enduring concern on the part of educators and the public, few researchers have chosen to focus on classroom management or to identify themselves with this critical field.
Evertson, C. M., & Weinstein, C. S. (Eds.). (2013). Handbook of classroom management: Research, practice, and contemporary issues. New York, NY: Routledge.
The Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) returns decision making for our nation’s education back where it belongs – in the hands of local educators, families, and communities – while keeping the focus on students most in need.
Fennell, M. (2016). What educators need to know about ESSA. Educational Leadership, 73, 62–65.
This book shows how principals and other school leaders can develop the skills necessary for teachers to deliver high quality instruction by introducing principals to a five-part model of effective instruction.
Fink, S., & Markholt, A. (2011). Leading for instructional improvement: How successful leaders develop teaching and learning expertise. John Wiley & Sons.
A peer-monitoring procedure and a self-monitoring procedure were developed to decrease disruption and non participation during the transition activities of a special kindergarten class.
Fowler, S. A. (1986). Peer-monitoring and self-monitoring: Alternatives to traditional teacher management. Exceptional Children, 52(6), 573-581.
This article describes a school-based randomized trial in over 200 New York City public schools designed to better understand the impact of teacher incentives.
Fryer, R. G. (2013). Teacher incentives and student achievement: Evidence from New York City public schools. Journal of Labor Economics, 31(2), 373-407.
In this meta-analysis of studies that utilize formative assessment the authors report an effective size of .7.
Fuchs, L. S., & Fuchs, D. (1986). Effects of Systematic Formative Evaluation: A Meta-Analysis. Exceptional Children, 53(3), 199-208.
This research synthesis examines how teacher effectiveness is currently measured (i.e., formative vs. summative evaluation).
Goe, L., Bell, C., & Little, O. (2008). Approaches to Evaluating Teacher Effectiveness: A Research Synthesis. National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality.
This guide is a tool designed to assist states and districts in constructing high-quality teacher evaluation systems in an effort to improve teaching and learning.
Goe, L., Holdheide, L., & Miller, T. (2011). A Practical Guide to Designing Comprehensive Teacher Evaluation Systems: A Tool to Assist in the Development of Teacher Evaluation Systems. National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality.
This paper report on work estimating the stability of value-added estimates of teacher effects, an important area of investigation given that new workforce policies implicitly assume that effectiveness is a stable attribute within teachers.
Goldhaber, D. D., & Hansen, M. (2008). Is it Just a Bad Class?: Assessing the Stability of Measured Teacher Performance. Seattle, WA: Center on Reinventing Public Education.
This paper provide some recommendations to increase the pool of potential teachers, make it tougher to award tenure to those who perform least well, and reward effective teachers who are willing to work in schools serving large numbers of low-income, disadvantaged children.
Gordon, R., Kane, T. J., & Staiger, D. O. (2006). Identifying Effective Teachers Using Performance on the Job. The Hamilton Project Policy Brief No. 2006-01. Brookings Institution.
This paper describe a few promising assessment technologies tat allow us to capture more direct, repeated, and contextually based measures of student learning, and propose an improvement-oriented approach to teaching and learning.
Greenwood, C. R., & Maheady, L. (1997). Measurable change in student performance: Forgotten standard in teacher preparation?. Teacher Education and Special Education, 20(3), 265-275.
Is dismissing poorly performing teachers truly feasible in America today? After all the political capital (and real capital) spent on reforming teacher evaluation, can districts actually terminate ineffective teachers who have tenure or have achieved veteran status?
Griffith, D., & McDougald, V. (2016). Undue process: Why bad teachers in twenty-five diverse districts rarely get fired. Washington DC: Thomas B. Fordham Institute. Retrieved from http://edex. s3-us-west-2. amazonaws. com/publication/pdfs, 2812, 29.
This study examines principals’ time spent on instructional functions. The results show that the traditional walk-through has little impact, but principals provide coaching, evaluation, and focus on educational programs can make a difference.
Grissom, J. A., Loeb, S., & Master, B. (2013). Effective Instructional Time Use for School Leaders: Longitudinal Evidence from Observations of Principals. Educational Researcher, 42(8), 433-444.
Policymakers and school administrators have embraced value-added models of teacher effectiveness as tools for educational improvement. Teacher value-added estimates may be viewed as complicated scores. This Paper examines the use of value-added modeling as a tool to identify effective teachers from ineffective instructors.
Haertel, E. H. (2013). Reliability and Validity of Inferences about Teachers Based on Student Scores. William H. Angoff Memorial Lecture Series. Educational Testing Service.
The major objective of this data analysis was to estimate the relationship between variables which can be controlled by public policy and educational output.
Hanushek, E. A. (1971). Teacher characteristics and gains in student achievement: Estimation using micro data. American Economic Review, 61(2), 280-288.
This discussion provides a quantitative statement of one approach to achieving the governors’ (and the nation’s) goals – teacher deselection.
Hanushek, E. A. (2009). Teacher deselection. Creating a new teaching profession, 168, 172-173.
This paper reports on the analysis of state statutes and department of education regulations in fifty states for changes in teacher evaluation in use since the passage of No Child Left Behind Act of 2001.
Hazi, H. M., & Rucinski, D. A. (2009). Teacher evaluation as a policy target for improved student learning: A fifty-state review of statute and regulatory action since NCLB. education policy analysis archives, 17, 5.
This paper examined the effects of a professional development intervention that included data-based performance feedback delivered via electronic mail (e-mail) on preschool teachers’ use of descriptive praise and whether increased use of descriptive praise was associated with changes in classroom-wide measures of child engagement and challenging behavior.
Hemmeter, M. L., Snyder, P., Kinder, K., & Artman, K. (2011). Impact of performance feedback delivered via electronic mail on preschool teachers’ use of descriptive praise. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 26(1), 96-109.
This article discusses the current focus on using teacher observation instruments as part of new teacher evaluation systems being considered and implemented by states and districts.
Hill, H., & Grossman, P. (2013). Learning from teacher observations: Challenges and opportunities posed by new teacher evaluation systems. Harvard Educational Review, 83(2), 371-384.
NSDC opens the door to professional learning that ensures great teaching for every student every day
Hirsh, S. (2009). A new definition. Journal of Staff Development, 30(4), 10–16.
Focusing on elementary classrooms, chapters include: Students' Feelings about School; Involvement and Withdrawal in the Classroom; Teachers Views; The Need for New Perspectives.
Jackson, P. W. (1990). Life in classrooms. Teachers College Press.
This paper examines how well principals can distinguish between more and less effective teachers. To put principal evaluations in context, we compare them with the traditional determinants of teacher compensation-education and experience-as well as value-added measures of teacher effectiveness.
Jacob, B. A., & Lefgren, L. (2008). Can principals identify effective teachers? Evidence on subjective performance evaluation in education. Journal of Labor Economics, 26(1), 101-136.
The 1988 NAEP surveyed American students' knowledge of reading, writing, civics, U.S. history, and geography.
Johnson, E. G., & Zwick, R. (1990). Focusing the new design: The NAEP 1988 technical report. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Studies, 17,95–109.
This study investigated the effects of training preschool teachers to use environmental arrangement and milieu teaching in interactions with children using augmented communication systems. Three teachers were taught seven environmental strategies and four milieu teaching procedures through written materials, lecture, modeling, role-playing, and feedback.
Kaiser, A. P., Ostrosky, M. M., & Alpert, C. L. (1993). Training teachers to use environmental arrangement and milieu teaching with nonvocal preschool children. Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 18(3), 188-199.
The authors examined the effectiveness of self-monitoring for increasing the rates of teacher praise statements and the acceptability of using this technique for teachers. This study's results support the use of self-monitoring to increase effective teaching practices, namely praise, and further demonstrates high social validity for the participant and the students.
Kalis, T. M., Vannest, K. J., & Parker, R. (2007). Praise counts: Using self-monitoring to increase effective teaching practices. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth, 51(3), 20-27.
This study used a random-assignment experiment in Los Angeles Unified School District to evaluate various non-experimental methods for estimating teacher effects on student test scores. Having estimated teacher effects during a pre-experimental period, the authors used these estimates to predict student achievement following random assignment of teachers to classrooms.
Kane, T. J., & Staiger, D. O. (2008). Estimating teacher impacts on student achievement: An experimental evaluation (No. w14607). National Bureau of Economic Research.
This report presents an in-depth discussion of the analytical methods and findings from the Measures of Effective Teaching (MET) project’s analysis of classroom observations.1 A nontechnical companion report describes implications for policymakers and practitioners.
Kane, T. J., & Staiger, D. O. (2012). Gathering Feedback for Teaching: Combining High-Quality Observations with Student Surveys and Achievement Gains. Research Paper. MET Project. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
In this study the authors designed the Measures of Effective Teaching (MET) project to test replicable methods for identifying effective teachers. In past reports, the authors described three approaches to measuring different aspects of teaching: student surveys, classroom observations, and a teacher's track record of student achievement gains on state tests.
Kane, T. J., McCaffrey, D. F., Miller, T., & Staiger, D. O. (2013). Have We Identified Effective Teachers? Validating Measures of Effective Teaching Using Random Assignment. Research Paper. MET Project. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
This paper combines information from classroom-based observations and measures of teachers' ability to improve student achievement as a step toward addressing these challenges. The results point to the promise of teacher evaluation systems that would use information from both classroom observations and student test scores to identify effective teachers.
Kane, T. J., Taylor, E. S., Tyler, J. H., & Wooten, A. L. (2011). Identifying effective classroom practices using student achievement data. Journal of human Resources, 46(3), 587-613.
The authors proposed a preliminary FI theory (FIT) and tested it with moderator analyses. The central assumption of FIT is that FIs change the locus of attention among 3 general and hierarchically organized levels of control: task learning, task motivation, and meta-tasks (including self-related) processes.
Kluger, A. N., & DeNisi, A. (1996). The effects of feedback interventions on performance: A historical review, a meta-analysis, and a preliminary feedback intervention theory. Psychological bulletin, 119(2), 254.
This book offers strategies that make a difference in student learning including: content planning, instructional practices, and community building.
Knight, J. (2013). High-impact Instruction: A Framework for Great Teaching. Corwin Press.
This paper challenge the “more is better” assumption and propose that frequent feedback can overwhelm an individual’s cognitive resource capacity, thus reducing task effort and producing an inverted-U relationship with learning and performance over time.
Lam, C. F., DeRue, D. S., Karam, E. P., & Hollenbeck, J. R. (2011). The impact of feedback frequency on learning and task performance: Challenging the “more is better” assumption. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 116(2), 217-228.
The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of teacher evaluation scores that are derived from an observation tool, adapted from Danielson's Framework for Teaching, designed to assess 22 teaching components from four teaching domains.
Lash, A., Tran, L., & Huang, M. (2016). Examining the Validity of Ratings from a Classroom Observation Instrument for Use in a District's Teacher Evaluation System. REL 2016-135. Regional Educational Laboratory West.
the present study was designed to learn more about how to strengthen the integrity of the problem-solving process
Lundahl, A. A. (2010). Effects of Performance Feedback and Coaching on the Problem-Solving Process: Improving the Integrity of Implementation and Enhancing Student Outcomes. ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway, PO Box 1346, Ann Arbor, MI 48106.
ver one year, the author asked more than 3,000 educators their opinions about these two basic purposes by presenting them with a scale that has five values.
Marzano, R. J. (2012). Teacher Evaluation: What’s fair? What’s effective? The two purposes of teacher evaluation. Educational Leadership, 70(3), 14–19. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. Retrieved from http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/nov12/vol70/num03/The-Two-Purposes-of-Teacher-Evaluation.aspx
The authors show school and district-level administrators how to set the priorities and support the practices that will help all teachers become expert teachers. Their five-part framework is based on what research tells us about how expertise develops.
Marzano, R. J., Frontier, T., & Livingston, D. (2011). Effective supervision: Supporting the art and science of teaching. Ascd.
How does classroom management affect student achievement? What techniques do
teachers find most effective? How important are schoolwide policies and practices in setting
the tone for individual classroom management? In this follow-up to What Works in Schools,
Robert J. Marzano analyzes research from more than 100 studies on classroom
management to discover the answers to these questions and more. He then applies these
findings to a series of" Action Steps"--specific strategies.
Marzano, R. J., Marzano, J. S., & Pickering, D. (2003). Classroom management that works: Research-based strategies for every teacher. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD).
Building on the analysis that was first reported in School Leadership That Works, the authors of Balanced Leadership identify the 21 responsibilities associated with effective leadership and show how they relate to three overarching responsibilities:
Marzano, R. J., Waters, T., & McNulty, B. A. (2001). School leadership that works: From research to results. ASCD.
This study examines implementation of alternative student growth measures in a sample of eight school districts that were early adopters of the measures. It builds on an earlier Region al Educational Laboratory Mid-Atlantic report that described the two types of alternative student growth measures—alternative assessment–based value-added models and student learning objectives—in the early-adopting districts.
McCullough, M., English, B., Angus, M. H., & Gill, B. (2015). Alternative student growth measures for teacher evaluation: Implementation experiences of early-adopting districts (No. 8a9dfcb1bc6143608448114ea9b69d06). Mathematica Policy Research.
In December 2016, Bellwether Education Partners and The Thomas B. Fordham Institute independently released two reports centered on teacher evaluation and its consequences. Both reports offer a glimpse into ongoing challenges and opportunities with teacher evaluation reform, but they have very different analyses.
McDougald, V., Griffith, D., Pennington, K., & Mead, S. (2016). What is the purpose of teacher evaluation today? A conversation between Bellwether and Fordham. Retrieved from https://edexcellence.net/articles/what-is-the-purpose-of-teacher-evaluation-today-a-conversation-between-bellwether-and
This study examined the effect of a visual performance feedback intervention (i.e., a simple, computer-generated line graph) on teachers' rate of praise for students' academic and behavioral performance and subsequent changes in students' rates of problem behavior.
Mesa, J., Lewis-Palmer, T., & Reinke, W. (2005). Providing Teachers with Performance Feedback on Praise to Reduce Student Problem Behavior. Beyond Behavior, 15(1), 3-7.
This paper summarizes validity evidence pertaining to several different implementations of the Framework. It is based primarily on reviewing the published and unpublished studies that have looked at the relationship between teacher evaluation ratings made using systems based on the Framework and value-added measures of teacher effectiveness.
Milanowski, A. T. (2011). Validity Research on Teacher Evaluation Systems Based on the Framework for Teaching. Online Submission.
This study evaluated the effects of performance feedback on the implementation of a classroom intervention.
Mortenson, B. P., & Witt, J. C. (1998). The use of weekly performance feedback to increase teacher implementation of a prereferral academic intervention. School Psychology Review, 613-627.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of group inservice training plus written and verbal feedback on four Head Start teachers’ use of incidental teaching. D
Mudd, J. M., & Wolery, M. (1987). Training head start teachers to use incidental teaching. Journal of the Division for Early Childhood, 11(2), 124-134.
This report is concerned with only one of the many causes and dimensions of the problem, but it is the one that undergirds American prosperity, security, and civility.
National Commission on Excellence in Education. (1983). A Nation at Risk: The imperative for education reform. Retrieved from https://www.edreform.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/A_Nation_At_Risk_1983.pdf
This report present the panel’s conclusions, an indication of the readiness for application in the classroom of the results of this research, and, if appropriate, a strategy for rapidly disseminating this information to facilitate effective reading instruction in the schools.
National Reading Panel. (2000). Report of the National Reading Panel. Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction: Reports of the subgroups(NIH Publication No. 00-4754). Washington, DC: U. S. Government Printing Office.
The goal of the study was to examine the effects of coaching or professional development coursework on teacher knowledge and teacher practice.
Neuman, S. B., & Wright, T. S. (2010). Promoting language and literacy development for early childhood educators: A mixed-methods study of coursework and coaching. Elementary School Journal, 111,63–86.
This study evaluated the impact of training on treatment integrity. After finding that positive effects lasted 2-4 days, performance feedback was used to increase treatment integrity.
Noell, G. H., Witt, J. C., Gilbertson, D. N., Ranier, D. D., & Freeland, J. T. (1997). Increasing teacher intervention implementation in general education settings through consultation and performance feedback. School Psychology Quarterly, 12(1).
In this article, the author argue that classroom teaching is structured by ritualized routines supported by widely held myths about learning and ability that are acquired through our common experiences as students.
Nuthall, G. (2005). The cultural myths and realities of classroom teaching and learning: A personal journey. Teachers College Record, 107(5), 895-934.
This research use data from a four-year experiment in which teachers and students were randomly assigned to classes to estimate teacher effects on student achievement.
Nye, B., Konstantopoulos, S., & Hedges, L. V. (2004). How large are teacher effects? Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 26(3),237–257.
As states and districts consider potential changes to their teacher evaluation systems and policies, this paper seeks to inform those efforts by reviewing the evolution of the teacher evaluation policy movement over the last several years, identifying positive outcomes of new systems and negative consequences, and describing risks that should be considered.
Pennington, K., & Mead, S. (2016). For good measure? Teacher evaluation policy in the ESSA era. Washington, DC: Bellwether Education Partners. Retrieved from https://bellwethereducation.org/publication/good-measure-teacher-evaluation-policy-essa-era
This handbook advocates a new approach to teacher evaluation as a cooperative effort undertaken by a group of professionals.
Peterson, K. D. (2000). Teacher evaluation: A comprehensive guide to new directions and practices. Corwin Press.
In this provocative and persuasive new book, the author asserts that the secret to high performance and satisfaction-at work, at school, and at home—is the deeply human need to direct our own lives, to learn and create new things, and to do better by ourselves and our world.
Pink, D. H. (2011). Drive: The surprising truth about what motivates us. Penguin.
The Every Student Succeeds Act: Explained.
Plans, A. (2015). The every student succeeds act: Explained. Education Week.
This article is the first to explore the extent to which teachers’ instructional alignment is associated with their contributions to student learning and their effectiveness on new composite evaluation measures using data from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation’s Measures of Effective Teaching study.
Polikoff, M. S, & Porter, A. C. (2014). Instructional alignment as a measure of teacher quality. Education Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 64(3), 212–225. Retrieved from http://www.aera.net/Newsroom/Recent-AERA-Research/Instructional-Alignment-as-a-Measure-of-Teaching-Quality
Research using student scores on standardized tests confirms the common perception that some teachers are more effective than others. It also reveals that being taught by an effective teacher has important consequences for student achievement. The best way to assess a teacher's effectiveness is to look at his or her on-the-job performance.
RAND Education. (2012).Teachers matter: Understanding teachers’ impact on student achievement, Santa Monica, Calif.: Author. Retrieved from https://www.rand.org/pubs/corporate_pubs/CP693z1-2012-09.html
This book focuses on helping K-12 teachers increase their use of classroom management strategies that work. The Classroom Check-Up is a step-by-step model for assessing teachers' organizational, instructional, and behavior management practices; helping them develop a menu of intervention options; and overcoming obstacles to change.
Reinke, W. M., Lewis-Palmer, T., & Martin, E. (2007). The effect of visual performance feedback on teacher behavior-specific praise. Behavior Modifications, 31(3), 247–263.
In this study, using mixed methods, we investigated the longer term effects of eCoaching through advanced online bug-in-ear (BIE) technology.
Rock, M. L., Schumacker, R. E., Gregg, M., Howard, P. W., Gable, R. A., & Zigmond, N. (2014). How are they now? Longer term effects of e coaching through online bug-in-ear technology. Teacher Education and Special Education, 37(2), 161-181.
In order to provide accurate estimates of how much teachers affect the achievement of their students, this study used panel data covering over a decade of elementary student test scores and teacher assignment in two contiguous New Jersey school districts.
Rockoff, J. E. (2004). The impact of individual teachers on student achievement: Evidence from panel data. American economic review, 94(2), 247-252.
This research considers relationships between student achievement (knowledge and cognitive skill), teacher efficacy (Gibson & Dembo, 1984), and interactions with assigned coaches (self-report measures) in a sample of 18 grade 7 and 8 history teachers in 36 classes implementing a specific innovation with the help of 6 coaches.
Ross, J. A. (1992). Teacher efficacy and the effects of coaching on student achievement. Canadian Journal of Education, 17(1), 51–65.
This research considers relationships between student achievement (knowledge and cognitive skill), teacher efficacy (Gibson & Dembo, 1984), and interactions with assigned coaches (self-report measures) in a sample of 18 grade 7 and 8 history teachers in 36 classes implementing a specific innovation with the help of 6 coaches.
Ross, J. A. (1992). Teacher efficacy and the effects of coaching on student achievement. Canadian Journal of Education, 17(1), 51–65.
The author develop falsification tests for three widely used VAM specifications, based on the idea that future teachers cannot influence students' past achievement.
Rothstein, J. (2010). Teacher quality in educational production: Tracking, decay, and student achievement. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 125(1), 175-214.
The Tennessee Value-Added Assessment System determines the effectiveness of school systems, schools, and teachers based on student academic growth over time. Research conducted utilizing data from the TVAAS database has shown that race, socioeconomic level, class size, and classroom heterogeneity are poor predictors of student academic growth. Rather, the effectiveness of the teacher is the major determinant of student academic progress.
Sanders, W. L., & Rivers, J. C. (1996). Cumulative and residual effects of teachers on future student academic achievement.
This study examined the relative magnitude of teacher effects on student achievement while simultaneously considering the in¯uences of intraclassroom heterogeneity, student achievement level, and class size on academic growth.
Sanders, W. L., Wright, S. P., & Horn, S. P. (1997). Teacher and classroom context effects on student achievement: Implications for teacher evaluation. Journal of Personnel Evaluation and Education, 11(1), 57–67.
This paper proposes a conceptual framework to analyze teacher evaluation. It elaborates on the main components of a comprehensive teacher evaluation model and explains the main aspects to be taken into account for designing a teacher evaluation model.
Santiago, P., & Benavides, F. (2009). Teacher evaluation: A conceptual framework and examples of country practices.Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Retrieved from http://www.oecd.org/education/school/44568106.pdf
Teacher evaluations matter a lot—both to teachers and to those holding them accountable. But how can schools measure the performance of all teachers fairly? And what should they do with the results?
Sawchuk, S. (2015). Teacher evaluation: An issue overview. Education Week, 35(3), 1-6.
Teacher evaluation can be a very sensitive topic for teachers and program administrators alike. Evaluations need to be fair and relevant to both teachers and programs.
Sayavedra, M. (2014). Teacher evaluation. ORTESOL Journal, 31, 1–9.
This paper reviews the empirical research on the effectiveness of performance feedback as a means of influencing teacher implementation of interventions.
Scheeler, M. C., Ruhl, K. L., & McAfee, J. K. (2004). Providing Performance Feedback to Teachers: A Review. Teacher Education & Special Education, 27(4).
This paper evaluated a program for training 4 support staff to embed instruction within the existing activities of 5 children with disabilities in an inclusive preschool.
Schepis, M. M., Reid, D. H., Ownbey, J., & Parsons, M. B. (2001). Training support staff to embed teaching within natural routines of young children with disabilities in an inclusive preschool. Journal of applied behavior analysis, 34(3), 313-327.
This book is organized around four dominant interrelated core issues: professional standards, a guide to applying the Joint Committee's Standards, ten alternative models for the evaluation of teacher performance, and an analysis of these selected models.
Shinkfield, A. J., & Stufflebeam, D. L. (2012). Teacher evaluation: Guide to effective practice (Vol. 41). Springer Science & Business Media.
This article describe teachers coaching teaching including the purpose, process, who should coach, and the effects of the coaching.
Showers, B. (1985). Teachers coaching teachers. Educational leadership, 42(7), 43-48.
This study examines the relations between school context variables and teachers’ feeling of belonging, emotional exhaustion, job satisfaction, and motivation to leave the teaching profession. Six aspects of the school context were measured: value consonance, supervisory support, relations with colleagues, relations with parents, time pressure, and discipline problems.
Skaalvik, E. M., & Skaalvik, S. (2011). Teacher job satisfaction and motivation to leave the teaching profession: Relations with school context, feeling of belonging, and emotional exhaustion. Teaching and teacher education, 27(6), 1029-1038.
This paper presents the results of a rigorous experiment examining the impact of pay for performance on student achievement and instructional practice.
Springer, M. G., Ballou, D., Hamilton, L., Le, V. N., Lockwood, J. R., McCaffrey, D. F., ... & Stecher, B. M. (2011). Teacher Pay for Performance: Experimental Evidence from the Project on Incentives in Teaching (POINT). Society for Research on Educational Effectiveness.
In his 1964 paper, "Course Improvement through Evaluation, " Lee Cronbach urged another step: a most generous inclusion of behavioral - science variables in order to examine the possible causes and effects of quality teaching He proposed that the main objective for evaluation is to uncover durable relationships -those appropriate for guiding future educational programs.
Stake, R. E. (1967). The countenance of educational evaluation. Teachers College Record, 68, 523–540.Retrieved from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.543.5561&rep=rep1&type=pdf
Peer observation aims to support the sharing of practice, and builds self-awareness about the impact of one's teaching practice in order to affect change.
State Government of Victoria, Australia. (2019). Teacher tip: Peer observation, feedback and reflection.Retrieved from https://www.education.vic.gov.au/school/teachers/classrooms/Pages/approachesppnpeerobstip.aspx
Summative assessment is an appraisal of learning at the end of an instructional unit or at a specific point in time. It compares student knowledge or skills against standards or benchmarks. Summative assessment includes midterm exams, final project, papers, teacher-designed tests, standardized tests, and high-stakes tests.
States, J., Detrich, R. & Keyworth, R. (2018). Overview of Summative Assessment. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/assessment-summative
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation launched the Intensive Partnerships for Effective Teaching initiative. The initiative's goal is dramatic gains in student achievement, graduation rates, and college-going, especially for LIM students.
Stecher, B. M., Garet, M. S., Hamilton, L. S., Steiner, E. D., Robyn, A., Poirier, J., ... & de los Reyes, I. B. (2016). Improving Teaching Effectiveness: Implementation: The Intensive Partnerships for Effective Teaching Through 2013–2014. Rand Corporation.
the authors examine how the five profiled systems are addressing assessment quality, evaluating teachers in nontested subjects and grades, and assigning teachers responsibility for particular students. The authors also examine what is and is not known about the quality of various student performance measures used by school systems.
Steele, J. L., Hamilton, L. S., & Stecher, B. M. (2010). Incorporating Student Performance Measures into Teacher Evaluation Systems. Technical Report. Rand Corporation.
Chicago Public Schools initiated the Excellence in Teaching Project, a teacher evaluation program designed to increase student learning by improving classroom instruction through structured principal–teacher dialogue.
Steinberg, M. P., & Sartain, L. (2015). Does teacher evaluation improve school performance? Experimental evidence from Chicago’s Excellence in Teaching project. Education Finance and Policy, 10(4), 535–572.
The purpose of this special issue is to address current issues, challenges, and promising approaches for providing Tier 2 behavioral interventions in school settings. Articles solicited for this issue address gaps in the literature and implementation needs and challenges specifically for Tier 2.
Stormont, M., & Reinke, W. M. (2013). Implementing Tier 2 social behavioral interventions: Current issues, challenges, and promising approaches. Journal of Applied School Psychology, 29(2), 121-125.
This study has 2 purposes: examine the effect of an observation-feedback intervention on the rate of a teacher's behavior-specific praise of students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) and the effect of increased rates of a teacher's behavior-specific praise on the on-task behavior of a class of students with EBD.
Sutherland, K. S., Wehby, J. H., & Copeland, S. R. (2000). Effect of varying rates of behavior-specific praise on the on-task behavior of students with EBD. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 8(1), 2-8.
This study explored the effects of visual performance feedback (VPF) delivered in real-time using screen sharing technology on a discrete teacher practice (i.e., positive feedback) for four general education teachers in a middle school using a multiple baseline across teachers design.
Sweigart, C. A., Landrum, T. J., & Pennington, R. C. (2015). The effect of real-time visual performance feedback on teacher feedback: A preliminary investigation. Education and Treatment of Children, 38(4), 429-450.
This study examined the effectiveness of a classroom teacher intervention, the Targeted Reading Intervention (TRI), in helping struggling readers in kindergarten and first grade. This intervention used biweekly literacy coaching in the general education classroom to help classroom teachers use diagnostic strategies with struggling readers in one-on-one 15-min sessions.
Targeted reading intervention: A coaching model to help classroom teachers with struggling readers. Learning Disability Quarterly, 35, 102-114.
This paper offers evidence that evaluation can shift the teacher effectiveness distribution through a different mechanism: by improving teacher skill, effort, or both in ways that persist long-run.
Taylor, E. S., & Tyler, J. H. (2012). The effect of evaluation on teacher performance. American Economic Review, 102(7), 3628-51.
In the research reported here, the authors study one approach to teacher evaluation: practice-based assessment that relies on multiple, highly structured classroom observations conducted by experienced peer teachers and administrators.
Taylor, E. S., & Tyler, J. H. (2012a). Can teacher evaluation improve teaching? Evidence of systematic growth in the effectiveness of mid-career teachers. Education Next, 12(4), 79–84. Retrieved from http://educationnext.org/can-teacher-evaluation-improve-teaching/
This report proposes six design standards that any rigorous and fair teacher evaluation system should meet. It offers a blueprint for better evaluations that can help every teacher succeed in the classroom—and give every student the best chance at success.
The New Teacher Project. (2010). Teacher Evaluation 2.0.New York, NY: Author. Retrieved from: https://tntp.org/assets/documents/Teacher-Evaluation-Oct10F.pdf
The authors examine the causes and consequences of the status of teacher evaluation and its implications for the current national debate about performance pay for teachers. The report also examines a number of national, state, and local evaluation systems that offer potential alternatives to current practice.
Toch, T., & Rothman, R. (2008). Rush to Judgment: Teacher Evaluation in Public Education. Education Sector Reports. Education Sector.
This study evaluated whether the Targeted Reading Intervention (TRI), a classroom teacher professional development program delivered through webcam technology literacy coaching, could provide rural classroom teachers with the instructional skills to help struggling readers progress rapidly in early reading.
Vernon-Feagans, L., Kainz, K., Hedrick, A., Ginsberg, M., & Amendum, S. (2013). Live webcam coaching to help early elementary classroom teachers provide effective literacy instruction for struggling readers: The Targeted Reading Intervention. Journal of Educational Psychology, 105(4), 1175.
This literature review examines the impact of various instructional methods
Walberg H. J. (1999). Productive teaching. In H. C. Waxman & H. J. Walberg (Eds.) New directions for teaching, practice, and research (pp. 75-104). Berkeley, CA: McCutchen Publishing.
This report examines the pervasive and longstanding failure to recognize and respond to variations in the effectiveness of teachers.
Weisberg, D., Sexton, S., Mulhern, J., Keeling, D., Schunck, J., Palcisco, A., & Morgan, K. (2009). The widget effect: Our national failure to acknowledge and act on differences in teacher effectiveness. New Teacher Project.
Wenglinsky, H. (2002). How schools matter: The link between teacher classroom practices and student academic performance. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 10(12).
Studies of the effectiveness of Direct Instruction programs with special education students
were examined in a meta-analysis comparison. To be included, the outcomes had to be
compared with outcomes for some other treatment to which students were assigned prior to
any interventions. Not one of 25 studies showed results favoring the comparison groups.
Fifty-three percent of the outcomes significantly favored DI with an average magnitude of
effect of. 84 standard deviation units. The effects were not restricted to a particular handicapping condition, age group or skill area.
White, W. A. T. (1988). A meta-analysis of the effects of direct instruction in special education. Education and Treatment of Children, 11(4), 364–374.
A preliminary survey of 32 school districts identified as having highly developed teacher evaluation systems was followed by the selection of 4 case study districts.
Wise, A. E., Darling-Hammond, L., Tyson-Bernstein, H, & McLaughlin, M. W. (1984). Teacher evaluation: A study of effective practices. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED246559.pdf
The purpose of this study is to examine research to answer the question, What is the impact of teacher professional development on student achievement.
Yoon, K. S., Duncan, T., Lee, S. W. Y., Scarloss, B., & Shapley, K. L. (2007). Reviewing the Evidence on How Teacher Professional Development Affects Student Achievement. Issues & Answers. REL 2007-No. 033. Regional Educational Laboratory Southwest (NJ1).
This second edition includes an expanded set of classroom observation tools, moving from 23 to 40 and more linkages to the job-embedded nature of the informal classroom observations.
Zepeda, S. J. (2009). The instructional leaders’ guide to informal classroom observations.New York, NY: Routledge.