This overview describe Multitiered system of support (MTSS) as a conceptual framework for organizing service delivery to students.
This study presents a reanalysis of a large randomized controlled trial of school-based mentoring and examines the estimated effect of mentoring as a function of mentee-reported relationship quality using a novel statistical approach.
This paper offer a number of research findings and action steps drawn from policies and practices that have been shown to be critical to the success of educational reforms at the local, district and state levels.
Research Findings to Support effective Educational policymaking: Evidence& Action Steps for State, District & Local Policymakers. (2009). New York: The Wallace Foundation. Retrieved from: https://www.wallacefoundation.org/knowledge-center/Documents/Research-Findings-Action-Items-to-Support-Effective-Educational-Policymaking.pdf
With the passage of the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA), states gain considerably more authority and autonomy over the design of school accountability systems. This shift in responsibility creates the opportunity for states to reimagine new accountability models that align to goals of college and career readiness for all students and to move from a culture of compliance to one of continuous improvement.
Adams, C. M., Ford, T. G., Forsyth, P. B., Ware, J. K., Olsen, J. J., Lepine Sr, J. A., ... & Mwavita, M. (2017). Next Generation Accountability: A Vision for School Improvement under ESSA. Learning Policy Institute.
This review (a) provides an overview of what schools currently do related to mental health and psychosocial concerns, (b) clarifies key emerging trends, and (c) explores implications for major systemic changes.
Adelman, H. S., & Taylor, L. (1999). Mental health in schools and system restructuring. Clinical Psychology Review, 19(2), 137-163.
This research finds online charter schools perform worse than traditional public or schools. The study by New York University and the Rand corporation concludes that students in Ohio who are enrolled in virtual schools receive significantly less time engaged in instruction and are less likely to pass the Ohio Graduation Test.
Ahn, J, and McEachin, A. (2017). Student Enrollment Patterns and Achievement in Ohio’s Online Charter Schools. Education Researcher, Vol. XX No. X, pp. 1-14
An ecological model for school-based mental health services that targets urban low-income aggressive children—a highly vulnerable and underserved population—is presented.
Atkins, M. S., McKay, M. M., Arvanitis, P., London, L., Madison, S., Costigan, C., ... & Bennett, D. (1998). An ecological model for school-based mental health services for urban low-income aggressive children. The Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research, 25(1), 64-75.
Bellon, J. J., Bellon, E. C., & Blank, M. A. (1992). Teaching from a research knowledge base: A development and renewal process. Merrill.
Six issues presented in this presentation are (1) The definitional issue (2) The effectiveness issue (3) The domain issue (4) The measurement issue (5) The professional development issue (6) The system issue
Bennett, R. E. (2011). Formative assessment: A critical review. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 18(1), 5-25.
As part of a federally funded study of NCLB, RAND Corporation researchers, in collaboration with researchers from the American Institutes for Research, analyzed the progress that states, districts, and schools have made in implementing the teacher qualification provisions of NCLB through the 2004–2005 school year.
Birman, B., Le Floch, K., Klekotka, A., Ludwig, M., Taylor, J., Walters, K…..O’Day, J. (2007). Evaluating teacher quality under No Child Left Behind. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation. https://www.rand.org/pubs/research_briefs/RB9287.html
The authors discuss how to use economic techniques to evaluate educational programs and show how to apply basic cost analysis to implementation of school-wide positive behavior support (SWPBS).
Blonigen, B. A., Harbaugh, W. T., Singell, L. D., Horner, R. H., Irvin, L. K., & Smolkowski, K. S. (2008). Application of economic analysis to school-wide positive behavior support (SWPBS) programs. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 10(1), 5–19. doi: 10.1177/1098300707311366
This study is a meta-analysis of the research on the impact of comprehensive school reform (CSR) on student achievement. The research summarizes the specific effects of 29 widely implemented models.
Borman, G. D., Hewes, G. M., Overman, L. T., & Brown, S. (2003). Comprehensive school reform and achievement: A meta-analysis. Review of educational research, 73(2), 125-230.
The current study reports intervention effects on child behaviors and adjustment from an effectiveness trial of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports.
Bradshaw, C. P., Waasdorp, T. E., & Leaf, P. J. (2012). Effects of school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports on child behavior problems. Pediatrics, 130(5), e1136-e1145.
Explores existing models of the school as a health care service delivery setting and considers the implications of these models for the practice of psychology in schools.
Carlson, C. I., Paavola, J., & Talley, R. (1995). Historical, current, and future models of schools as health care delivery settings. School Psychology Quarterly, 10(3), 184.
This article (a)provide a definition of the evolving applied science of positive behavior support (PBS); (b)describe the background sources from which PBS has emerged; (c)give an overview of the critical features that, collectively, differentiate PBS from other approaches; and (d) articulate a vision for the future of PBS.
Carr, E. G., Dunlap, G., Horner, R. H., Koegel, R. L., Turnbull, A. P., Sailor, W., ... & Fox, L. (2002). Positive behavior support: Evolution of an applied science. Journal of positive behavior interventions, 4(1), 4-16.
This review assesses the effectiveness of school-based curricula, finance, management, and teacher’s decision-making. This report has implications for the impact of charter schools, as the primary intervention in this model is local control. The report finds limited evidence of the effectiveness of these reforms, especially from low-income countries.
Carr-Hill, R., Rolleston, C., Pherali, T., & Schendel, R. (2014). The effects of school-based decision making on educational outcomes in low-and middle-income contexts: A systematic review.
In this report, the rationale, development, implementation, and evaluation of a school-based mental health services program for high-risk children with serious emotional and behavioral problems is described.
Catron, T., & Weiss, B. (1994). The Vanderbilt school-based counseling program: An interagency, primary-care model of mental health services. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 2(4), 247-253.
This report provides a practical “management guide,” for an evidence-based key indicator data decision system for school districts and schools.
Celio, M. B., & Harvey, J. (2005). Buried Treasure: Developing A Management Guide From Mountains of School Data. Center on Reinventing Public Education.
Showcasing evidence-based models for schoolwide prevention of reading and behavior problems, this book is highly informative, practical, and grounded in research.
Chard, D. J., Harn, B. A., Sugai, G., Horner, R. H., Simmons, D. C., & Kame’enui, E. J. (2008). Core features of multi-tiered systems of reading and behavioral support. In C. R. Greenwood, T. R. Kratochwill, & M. Clemens (Eds.), Schoolwide prevention models: Lessons learned in elementary schools (pp. 31–58). New York, NY: Guildford Press.
This study sought to extend the work of Horner et al. (2010) in assessing the evidence base for SWPBS. However, unlike in the Horner et al. (2010) study, in this study the proposed criteria were applied to individual studies.
Chitiyo, M., May, M. E., & Chitiyo, G. (2012). An assessment of the evidence-base for school-wide positive behavior support. Education and Treatment of Children, 35(1), 1-24.
At this manual level of analysis, practitioners may choose from a variety of specific treatment programs that have demonstrated their efficacy in research trials.
Chorpita, B. F., Becker, K. D., & Daleiden, E. L.. (2007). Understanding the common elements of evidence-based practice: Misconceptions and clinical examples. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 46(5), 647–652.
In the past, the accreditation process put a premium on compliance and included some reporting requirements that did not necessarily lead programs toward excellence or increase teacher candidates' impact on schools and learning. The accreditation process enabled institutions to think they were "done" once they earned accredited status, and did not do enough to encourage programs to tackle complex challenges confronting P-12 schools.
Cibulka, J. G. (2009). Improving relevance, evidence, and performance in teacher preparation. The Education Digest, 75(2), 44.
The purpose of this study was to examine the use of a classwide positive peer reporting intervention known as ‘‘tootling’’ in conjunction with a group contingency procedure to reduce the number of disruptive behaviors in a third-grade inclusive classroom.
Cihak, D. F., Kirk, E. R., & Boon, R. T. (2009). Effects of classwide positive peer “tootling” to reduce the disruptive classroom behaviors of elementary students with and without disabilities. Journal of Behavioral Education, 18(4), 267.
Two school-based primary prevention interventions for adolescent depressive symptomatology and disorder were examined in separate studies with high school samples of 9th and 10th-grade adolescents.
Clarke, G. N., Hawkins, W., Murphy, M., & Sheeber, L. (1993). School-based primary prevention of depressive symptomatology in adolescents: Findings from two studies. Journal of Adolescent Research, 8(2), 183-204.
This study investigates the effect of a school-wide intervention plan, consisting of precorrection and active supervision strategies, on the social behavior of elementary students.
Colvin, G., Sugai, G., Good III, R. H., & Lee, Y. Y. (1997). Using active supervision and precorrection to improve transition behaviors in an elementary school. School Psychology Quarterly, 12(4), 344.
In this 26th volume of Advances in Learning and Behavioral Disabilities we address one of the most important educational reforms of recent years evidence-based practices (EBPs).
Cook, B. G., Tankersley, M., & Landrum, T. J. (Eds.). (2013). Evidence-based practices in learning and behavioral disabilities: The search for effective instruction (Vol. 26). Bingley, UK: Emerald Group Publishing.
A randomized experiment of Comer's School Development Program was conducted in 23 middle schools in Prince George's County, Maryland. Quasiexperimental analyses showed that the program theory may be correct in many of its predictions about student changes in psychological and social outcomes, but not achievement
Cook, T. D., Habib, F. N., Phillips, M., Settersten, R. A., Shagle, S. C., & Degirmencioglu, S. M. (1999). Comer's school development program in Prince George's County, Maryland: A theory-based evaluation. American Educational Research Journal, 36(3), 543-597.
Using fifth through eighth-grade students, the Comer School Development Program was evaluated in 10 inner city Chicago schools over 4 years, contrasting them with nine randomly selected no-treatment comparison schools.
Cook, T. D., Murphy, R. F., & Hunt, H. D. (2000). Comer's School Development Program in Chicago: A theory-based evaluation. American Educational Research Journal, 37(2), 535-597.
The present interpretation of construct validity is not “official” and deals with some areas where the Committee would probably not be unanimous. The present writers are solely responsible for this attempt to explain the concept and elaborate its implications.
Cronbach, L. J., & Meehl, P. E. (1955). Construct validity in psychological tests. Psychological bulletin, 52(4), 281–302.
In order to engage effectively in system-level consultation, school psychologists need to call upon three areas of expertise: (a) understanding human behavior from a social systems perspective, (b) ability to use collaborative planning and problem solving procedures, and (c) familiarity with principles for organizational change
Curtis, M. J., & Stollar, S. A. (2002). Best practices in system-level change.
This seven-year study of the Coalition Campus Schools Project in New York City documented a unique “birthing” process for new, small schools that were created as part of a network of reform-oriented schools in a context of systemwide reform.
Darling-Hammond, L., Ancess, J., & Ort, S. W. (2002). Reinventing high school: Outcomes of the coalition campus schools project. American educational research journal, 39(3), 639-673.
Analysis of the problems, theory, and design of sampling techniques for social scientists, industrial managers, and others who find statistics increasingly important in their work. Only college algebra assumed. Illustrated with dozens of actual large-scale surveys in government and industry. "The 'bible' of sampling statisticians."
Deming, W. E. (1966). Some theory of sampling. North Chelmsford, MA: Courier Corporation.
Problems associated with the school psychologists traditional assessment functions and methodology are identified and contrasted with the need for assessment information that can contribute meaningfully to the formulation and evaluation of educational interventions.
Deno, S. L. (1986). Formative evaluation of individual student programs: A new role for school psychologists. School Psychology Review.
Race to the Top will reward States that have demonstrated success in raising student achievement and have the best plans to accelerate their reforms in the future. These States will offer models for others to follow and will spread the best reform ideas across their States, and across the country.
Department of Education (ED). (2009). Race to the Top program: Executive summary. ERIC Clearinghouse.
This brief evolved from a larger Robert Wood Johnson Foundation–funded project to examine the intersection of and alignment between social and emotional learning (SEL) and school climate.
Devaney, E., & Berg, J. (2016). Creating Healthy Schools: Ten Key Ideas for the Social and Emotional Learning and School Climate Community. The 10. Education Policy Center at American Institutes for Research.
The purpose of this article is to address some of the key points of confusion, identify areas of overlap and distinction, and facilitate a constructive and collegial dialog between proponents of the PBS and ABA perspectives.
Dunlap, G., Carr, E. G., Horner, R. H., Zarcone, J. R., & Schwartz, I. (2008). Positive behavior support and applied behavior analysis: A familial alliance. Behavior Modification, 32(5), 682-698.
The largest Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) expenditure by far is for its Title I program. This report try to follow the money to see whether Title I funds are spent effectively and whether or not ESEA achieves its objectives. This report suggest focusing effective interventions on the neediest students may provide a way forward that is consistent with fiscal realities.
Dynarski, M., kainz, K. (2015). Why federal spending on disadvantaged students (Title I) doesn’t work. Brookings Institutions. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/research/why-federal-spending-on-disadvantaged-students-title-i-doesnt-work/
The authors concluded that early intensive behavioral intervention was associated with large to moderate improvements in IQ (intelligence quotient) and adaptive behavior in children with autism compared to no intervention or eclectic treatment.
Eldevik, S., Hastings, R. P., Hughes, J. C., Jahr, E., Eikeseth, S., & Cross, S. (2009). Meta-analysis of early intensive behavioral intervention for children with autism. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 38(3), 439-450.
This paper describes a 4-year project that partnered psychologists based in universities and those in educational service districts to support development and implementation of school-wide academic and behavioral support systems in four elementary schools across four districts, representing different communities with varying demographic characteristics within one state in the north-central region of the United States.
Ervin, R. A., Schaughency, E., Goodman, S. D., McGlinchey, M. T., & Matthews, A. (2006). Merging research and practice agendas to address reading and behavior school-wide. School Psychology Review, 35(2), 198.
This is a literature review of culture and student behavior. Based on this review, general recommendations are presented for practitioners, personnel preparers, policy makers, and researchers, especially, in the context of implementing SWPBS.
Fallon, L. M., O’Keeffe, B. V., & Sugai, G. (2012). Consideration of Culture and Context in School-Wide Positive Behavior Support A Review of Current Literature. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 14(4), 209-219.
This paper identified and discussed some of the more pressing challenges and associated ethical dilemmas of implementing EBP in social work and strategies to manage them, in the hopes of affirming that the process of EBP is both feasible and practicable.
Farley, A. (2009). The challenges of implementing evidence based practice: ethical considerations in practice, education, policy, and research. Social Work & Society, 7(2), 246-259.
This chapter reviews the theory of school-based accountability, describes variations across programs and identifies key features influencing the effectiveness and possible unintended consequences of accountability policies.
Figlio, D., & Loeb, S. (2011). School accountability. In E. A. Hanushek, S. J. Machin, & L. Woessman (Eds.), Handbooks in economics: Economics of education (Vol. 3, pp. 383–421). Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier.
The purpose of this Brief is to define the variables a state or large district leadership team may wish to consider as they determine if they are “ready” to invest in the scaling-up of innovation in education.
Fixsen, D. L., Blase, K. A., Horner, R., & Sugai, G. (2009). Readiness for Change. Scaling-Up Brief. Number 3. FPG Child Development Institute.
The failure of better science to readily produce better services has led to increasing interest in the science and practice of implementation. The results of recent reviews of implementation literature and best practices are summarized in this article.
Fixsen, D. L., Blase, K. A., Naoom, S. F., & Wallace, F. (2009). Core implementation components. Research on social work practice, 19(5), 531-540.
The purposes of this review were to (a) describe and quantify the effect of the Good Behavior Game on various challenging behaviors in school and classroom settings and (b) understand characteristics of the intervention that may affect the magnitude of the outcomes
Flower, A., McKenna, J. W., Bunuan, R. L., Muething, C. S., & Vega Jr, R. (2014). Effects of the Good Behavior Game on challenging behaviors in school settings. Review of educational research, 84(4), 546-571.
The four applied single-subject research designs presented provide an overview of the most common types of single-subject research designs that can be used by a school counselor.
Foster, L. H., Watson, T. S., Meeks, C., & Young, J. S. (2002). Single-subject research design for school counselors: Becoming an applied researcher. Professional School Counseling, 6(2), 146-154.
In this article, we explain important features of RTI, why it has been promoted as a substitute for IQ-achievement discrepancy, and what remains to be understood before it may be seen as a valid means of LD identification.
Fuchs, D., & Fuchs, L. S. (2006). Introduction to response to intervention: What, why, and how valid is it?. Reading research quarterly, 41(1), 93-99.
This special issue of Learning Disabilities Research and Practice is dedicated to Dr. Stanley L. Deno. For most of his career, Stan was a Professor of Educational Psychology at the University of Minnesota, where in the mid-1970s, he initiated a systematic program of research on what eventually came to be known as curriculum-based measurement (CBM) Through CBM, Stan’s impact on the field of special education and beyond has been enormous.
Fuchs, L. S. (2017). Curriculum‐based measurement as the emerging alternative: Three decades later. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice.
This study suggests that students of online charter schools had significantly weaker academic performance in math and reading, compared with their counterparts in conventional schools.
Gill, B., Walsh, L., Wulsin, C. S., Matulewicz, H., Severn, V., Grau, E., ... & Kerwin, T. (2015). Inside online charter schools. Cambridge, MA: Mathematica Policy Research. Retrieved November, 12, 2015.
This meta-analysis examines 23 studies for student access to curriculum by assessing the gap in reading achievement between general education peers and students with disabilities (SWD). The study finds that SWDs performed more than three years below peers. The study looks at the implications for changing this pictures and why current policies and practices are not achieving the desired results.
Gilmour, A. F., Fuchs, D., & Wehby, J. H. (2018). Are students with disabilities accessing the curriculum? A meta-analysis of the reading achievement gap between students with and without disabilities. Exceptional Children. Advanced online publication. doi:10.1177/0014402918795830
School reform embraced the American psyche in the 1980s, and waves of initiatives emerged to revitalize and improve a system perceived as not meeting the country's needs. Today, ideas such as school choice, for-profit
schools, site-based management, participatory decision-making, teacher empowerment, school restructuring, and an array of other reforms fill the educational lexicon as reformers seek alternative means for better educating the nation's youth.
Ginsberg, R., & Thompson, T. (1990). Dilemmas and solutions regarding principal evaluation. Peabody Journal of Education, 68(1), 58-74.
A 3-year study in eight middle schools tested a program to improve adolescent conduct. The program sought to increase clarity of school rules and consistency of rule enforcement, improve classroom organization and management, increase the frequency of communication with the home regarding student behavior, and increase reinforcement of appropriate behavior.
Gottfredson, D. C., Gottfredson, G. D., & Hybl, L. G. (1993). Managing adolescent behavior a multiyear, multischool study. American Educational Research Journal, 30(1), 179-215.
This project was undertaken to develop a comprehensive account of the levels of problem behaviors in schools. It also looked at what schools do to prevent problem behaviors and how they promote a safe and orderly environment.
Gottfredson, G. D., Gottfredson, D. C., Czeh, E. R., Cantor, D., Crosse, S. B., & Hantman, I. (2000). National Study of Delinquency Prevention in Schools. Final Report.
This executive summary discusses the definition of learning disabilities (LD) and how students are identified as having a learning disability.
Gresham, F. (August, 2001). Responsiveness to intervention: An alternative approach to the identification of learning disabilities. Executive summary. Paper presented at the 2001 Learning Disabilities Summit: Building a Foundation for the Future, Washington, DC. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED458755.pdf
This paper discusses the definition of learning disabilities (LD) and how students are identified as having a learning disability.
Gresham, F. M. (2002). Responsiveness to intervention: An alternative approach to the identification of learning disabilities. Identification of learning disabilities: Research to practice, 467519.
The purpose of this chapter is to present the evolution of the response to intervention (RTI) concept and discuss how that concept can be and is being used to provide more effective services to children and youth with both academic and social/behavioral difficulties
Gresham, F. M. (2007). Evolution of the response-to-intervention concept: Empirical foundations and recent developments. In Handbook of response to intervention (pp. 10-24). Springer, Boston, MA.
This principal's guide to implementing Response to Intervention (RTI) for elementary and middle school reading emphasizes the critical role administrators play in ensuring RTI success in their schools. The author makes recommendations for putting the RTI process in motion and helps school leaders:
Hall, S. L. (Ed.). (2007). Implementing response to intervention: A principal's guide. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
The authors analysis of special education placement rates, a frequently identified area of concern, does not show any responsiveness to the introduction of accountability systems.
Hanushek, E. A., & Raymond, M. E. (2005). Does school accountability lead to improved student performance?. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management: The Journal of the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management, 24(2), 297-327.
This book gives researchers and professionals the means to break this frustrating cycle, crafted by authors who have not only been there and done that, but can explain in-depth how to replicate the method
Harlacher J., Sakelaris T., Kattelman N. (2014) Practitioner’s guide to curriculum-based evaluation in reading. New York, NY: Springer.
This article examines issues in the Ohio’s state funded online schools. In the fall of 2016 the Ohio education department completed attendance audits of 13 e-schools. Nine were found to have over reported their student enrollment. This issue takes on added significance with the selection of Betsy DeVos, U.S. education secretary, a prominent advocate of school choice who supports expanding online school options.
Harold, H. and Harwin, A. (2017). Student Login Records at Ohio E-Schools Spark $80 Million Dispute. Education Week. Retrieved March 16, 2017 from http://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2017/03/08/student-login-records-at-ohio-e-schools-spark.html?cmp=eml-enl-dd-news2.
This report, preceded as it was by the seminal report of the Surgeon General on Mental Health (2000) and followed by the Surgeon General’s Youth Violence (2001) and Culture, Race and Ethnicity Reports (2002), represented a critical shift in federal health priorities.
Hoagwood, K., & Johnson, J. (2003). School psychology: A public health framework: I. From evidence-based practices to evidence-based policies. Journal of School Psychology, 41(1), 3-21.
Conducted a meta-analysis of 58 studies (1960–1984) on the early prediction of learning problems that reported correlations between measures administered in kindergarten or 1st-grade and reading achievement later in elementary school.
Horn, W. F., & Packard, T. (1985). Early identification of learning problems: A meta-analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 77(5), 597.
This report presents final 1999 data on U.S. deaths and death rates according to demographic and medical characteristics. Trends and patterns in general mortality, life expectancy, and infant and maternal mortality are also described.
Hoyert, D. L., Kochanek, K. D., & Murphy, S. L. (1999). Deaths: final data for 1997. Natl Vital Stat Rep, 47(19), 1-104.
This article examines universal screening, one component in a response to intervention approach for serving struggling learners.
Jenkins, J. R., Hudson, R. F., & Johnson, E. S. (2007). Screening for At-Risk Readers in a Response to. School Psychology Review, 36(4), 582-600.
School based leadership is an increasingly complex task that requires leaders to find ways to spread responsibility throughout organizations to achieve goals. This dissertation research is an exploratory study in the field of sustainability of distributed leadership at Capital High School, a large urban high school.
Klink, M. (2019). The Sustainability of Distributed Leadership (Doctoral dissertation, University of Pittsburgh).
This report presents an overview of issues related to evidence-based practice and the role that the school psychology profession can play in developing and disseminating evidence-based interventions.
Kratochwill, T. R., & Shernoff, E. S. (2003). Evidence-based practice: Promoting evidence-based interventions in school psychology. School Psychology Quarterly, 18(4), 389.
The authors presents the conceptual, philosophical, and methodological basis for the Procedural and Coding Manual for Review of Evidence-Based Interventions
Kratochwill, T. R., & Stoiber, K. C. (2002). Evidence-based interventions in school psychology: Conceptual foundations of the Procedural and Coding Manual of Division 16 and the Society for the Study of School Psychology Task Force. School Psychology Quarterly, 17(4), 341.
Sixteenth census of United States: 1940; Vital statistics rates in the United States, 1940-1960
Linder, F. E., & Grove, R. D. (1943). Vital statistics rates in the United States, 1900-1940. US Government Printing Office.
In 1986, the National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) position paper, "Rights without Labels," was published. This document was radical because it acknowledged that serious problems existed in the educational classification system and proposed the necessity of serving students with special needs within the general education setting without labeling them.
Lockwood, A., & Coulter, A. (2017). Rights without Labels: Thirty Years Later. Communique, 45(6).
This study examined the policies and practices of a representative sample of high schools to identify how they structure their credit recovery programs.
Malkus, N. (2019). Practice Outpacing Policy? Credit Recovery in American School Districts. American Enterprise Institute.
Leadership: The Key Concepts is an indispensable and authoritative guide to the most crucial ideas, concepts and debates surrounding the study and exercise of leadership
Marturano, A., & Gosling, J. (2007). Leadership: The key concepts. Routledge.
Several reliable and valid fidelity surveys are commonly used to assess Tier 1 implementation in School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS); however, differences across surveys complicate consequential decisions regarding school implementation status when multiple measures are compared. Compared with other measures, the PBIS Self-Assessment Survey (SAS) was more sensitive to differences among schools at higher levels of implementation. Implications for SWPBIS research and fidelity assessment are discussed.
Mercer, S. H., McIntosh, K., & Hoselton, R. (2017). Comparability of fidelity measures for assessing tier 1 school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 19(4), 195-204.
Missouri Code of State Regulations. (2021). Rules of Department of Elementary and Secondary Education
Missouri Code of State Regulations. (2021). Rules of Department of Elementary and Secondary Education
In this article, the authors review the research on curriculum-based measurement (CBM) in reading published since the time of Marston’s 1989 review
Miura Wayman, M., Wallace, T., Wiley, H. I., Tichá, R., & Espin, C. A. (2007). Literature synthesis on curriculum-based measurement in reading. The Journal of Special Education, 41(2), 85-120.
A comprehensive report mandated by the US Congress on the state of the science of prevention recommends a stricter definition of the term prevention; summarizes specific preventive intervention research programs across the life span; and specifies funding, personnel, and coordination priorities to build a national prevention research infrastructure
Munoz, R. F., Mrazek, P. J., & Haggerty, R. J. (1996). Institute of Medicine report on prevention of mental disorders: summary and commentary. American Psychologist, 51(11), 1116.
This Data Point examines the relationship between public and private school principals’ perceived influence over various decisions made at their schools before the coronavirus pandemic. This information was reported by U.S private and public school principals on the principal survey of the 2017–18 National Teacher and Principal Survey.
National Center for Education Statistics at IES. (2021). Principals’ Perceptions of Influence Over Decisions at Their Schools in 2017-2018.
Over the past decade, the OECD Programme for International Student Assessment, PISA, has become the world’s premier yardstick for evaluating the quality, equity and efficiency of school systems. This special issue of the PISA in Focus series highlights the results of the first two volumes of the PISA 2015 initial report: Excellence and Equity in Education; and Policies and Practices for Successful Schools.
OECD Publishing (2016). PISA 2015 Results in Focus. PISA in Focus,67. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1787/aa9237e6-en.
The purpose of this study was to identify the most important perceived enablers and barriers regarding sustainability of school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports. School personnel representing 860 schools implementing or preparing to implement school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports completed an open-ended survey of factors regarding its sustainability.
Pinkelman, S. E., McIntosh, K., Rasplica, C. K., Berg, T., & Strickland-Cohen, M. K. (2015). Perceived enablers and barriers related to sustainability of school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports. Behavioral Disorders, 40(3), 171-183.
The book covers topics vital to school psychology, ranging from theory-based presentation to scholarly reviews of research to more directive, or how-to, chapters.
Reynolds, C. R., & Gutkin, T. B. (1999). The handbook of school psychology. John Wiley & Sons Inc.
The relation between DIBELS, reading comprehension, and vocabulary in urban first-grade students
Riedel, B. W. (2007). The relation between DIBELS, reading comprehension, and vocabulary in urban first‐grade students. Reading research quarterly, 42(4), 546-567.
In this paper, it is argued that Critical Planning Theory is inadequate as a planning theory.
Rittel, H. W., & Webber, M. M. (1973). Dilemmas in a general theory of planning. Policy sciences, 4(2), 155-169.
The roles and functions of 52 school psychologists from Iowa and Tennessee were examined. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to test differences between reported time spent on prereferral, assessment, intervention, consultation, and curriculum‐based assessment
Roberts, A. H., & Rust, J. O. (1994). Role and function of school psychologists, 1992–93: A comparative study. Psychology in the Schools, 31(2), 113-119.
This paper provides a synthetic review of research on school-based mental health services.
Rones, M., & Hoagwood, K. (2000). School-based mental health services: A research review. Clinical child and family psychology review, 3(4), 223-241.
This literature review examines the use of school-based positive behavior support (PBS), an alternative to traditional disciplinary practices that includes databased decision making and team collaboration.
Safran, S. P., & Oswald, K. (2003). Positive behavior supports: Can schools reshape disciplinary practices?. Exceptional children, 69(3), 361-373.
This chapter traces the origins of RTI as a community mental health prevention model and examine its emergence into service eligibility determination in special education.
Sailor, W., Doolittle, J., Bradley, R., & Danielson, L. (2009). Response to intervention and positive behavior support. In Handbook of positive behavior support (pp. 729-753). Springer, Boston, MA.
This study examines the evidence and concludes that U.S. education system is producing ample supplies of students to respond to STEM labor market demand. As analyzed in this paper, the preponderance of evidence suggests that the U.S. education system has produced ample supplies of students to respond to STEM labor market demand. The “pipeline” of STEM-potential students is similarly strong and expanding.
Salzman, H., & Benderly, B. L. (2019). STEM Performance and Supply: Assessing the Evidence for Education Policy. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 28(1), 9-25.
This book offers the latest in evidence-based measures that have proven to create safer, more effective schools. The book emphasizes the interwoven nature of violence and academic underachievement, the importance of prevention and early intervention, the need to integrate intervention and remediation services in a seamless delivery system, and the enormous protective benefits of school success in all areas of a child's life.
Shinn, M. R., Walker, H. M., & Stoner, G. E. (2002). Interventions for academic and behavior problems II: Preventive and remedial approaches. National Association of School Psychologists.
A critical review of reading programs requires objective and in-depth analysis. For these reasons, the authors offer the following recommendations and procedures for analyzing critical elements of programs.
Simmons, D. C., & Kame’enui, E. J. (2003). A consumer’s guide to evaluating a core reading program grades K-3: A critical elements analysis. Retrieved December, 19, 2006.
This meta-analysis of School-wide Positive Behavior Supports examines 20 articles. Single-case studies were evaluated using a regression-based procedure to establish efficacy of the approach.
Solomon, B. G., Klein, S. A., Hintze, J. M., Cressey, J. M., & Peller, S. L. (2012). A meta?analysis of school?wide positive behavior support: An exploratory study using single?case synthesis. Psychology in the Schools, 49(2), 105-121.
Which blended-learning model should they choose? Are Station Rotations the ideal, or Flex studios? Is Carpe Diem’s Individual Rotation the gold standard, FirstLine’s Lab Rotation, Summit’s Flex model, or Woodland Park’s Flipped Classroom?
Staker, H. (2014, January 10). Which blended model should K–12 schools choose? Christensen Institute. http://www.christenseninstitute.org/which-blended-model-should-schools-choose/
This paper analyzed the results of research on the effects of ability grouping and acceleration on students' academic achievement. Nineteen meta-analyses were met criteria for inclusion for the review. Results were found for improved academic achievement within-class grouping, cross-grade grouping by subject, and grouping for the gifted. No positive effects were identified for between-class grouping. The results were consistent regardless of whether students were high, medium, or low achievers. The study found acceleration appeared to have a positive, moderate, and statistically significant impact on students’ academic achievement.
Steenbergen-Hu, S., Makel, M. C., & Olszewski-Kubilius, P. (2016). What One Hundred Years of Research Says About the Effects of Ability Grouping and Acceleration on K–12 Students’ Academic Achievement: Findings of Two Second-Order Meta-Analyses. Review of Educational Research, 86(4), 849-899.
This book provides a practical, streamlined approach for creating effective learning experiences by blending online activities and the best of face-to-face teaching.
Stein, J., & Graham, C. (2014). Essentials for blended learning: A standards-based guide. New York, NY: Routledge
The purpose of this chapter is to present a combined research- and practice-based framework for integrating a comprehensive MTSS model with EBP, and thus, optimize the results stemming from school improvement efforts.
Stoiber, K. C., & Gettinger, M. (2016). Multi-tiered systems of support and evidence-based practices. In Handbook of response to intervention (pp. 121-141). Springer, Boston, MA.
A Precision Teaching program for basic math facts was designed for students in the 5th, 6th, and 7th grade level in a regular primary school. This study adds to the knowledge of the efficacy and importance of Precision Teaching and mathematic performance monitoring.
Strømgren, B., Berg-Mortensen, C., & Tangen, L. (2014). The use of precision teaching to teach basic math facts. European Journal of Behavior Analysis, 15(2), 225-240.
The authors argue that, although conceptualizing school psychology as primarily an indirect service specialty has advanced our thinking about effective service delivery, conceptualizing school psychological services from a public health perspective will provide an even broader framework that can increase both the efficacy and efficiency of school psychologists' work.
Strein, W., Hoagwood, K., & Cohn, A. (2003). School psychology: A public health perspective: I. Prevention, populations, and systems change. Journal of School Psychology, 41(1), 23-38.
This presentation slide describes the important role of leadership in effective, efficient, and relevant PBIS implementation
Sugai, G. (2013). Role of Leadership and culture in PBIS Implementation [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from http://www.pbis.org/common/cms/files/pbisresources/PBIS_Implementation_leadership_braiding_apr_11_2013_HAND.pdf
This article focuses on what we know and need to know about school-wide applications of effective practices and systems for preventing problem behaviors.
Sugai, G., & Horner, R. H. (2008). What we know and need to know about preventing problem behavior in schools. Exceptionality, 16(2), 67-77.
The purpose of this chapter is to describe those characteristics of schoolwide positive behavior support (SW-PBS) practices and systems that establish and maintain an effective, efficient, and relevant social culture in which teaching and learning are maximized.
Sugai, G., & Horner, R. H. (2009). Defining and describing schoolwide positive behavior support. In Handbook of positive behavior support (pp. 307-326). Springer, Boston, MA.
This article considers culture within the context of School-wide Positive Behavior Support. The paper provides an overview of culture and working definitions to assist educators to more effectively implement evidence-based practices.
Sugai, G., O’Keeffe, B. V., & Fallon, L. M. (2012). A contextual consideration of culture and school-wide positive behavior support. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 14(4), 197-208. Can pd
This research brief provide an introductory overview of the cost of implementation of SWPBIS, as a school-wide approach to reduce suspensions, compared to the cost of school dropout.
Swain-Bradway, J., Lindstrom Johnson, S., Bradshaw, C., & McIntosh, K. (2017). What are the economic costs of implementing SWPBIS in comparison to the benefits from reducing suspensions. PBIS evaluation brief). Eugene, OR: OSEP TA Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports.
This research study employs a second-order meta-analysis procedure to summarize 40 years of research activity addressing the question, does computer technology use affect student achievement in formal face-to-face classrooms as compared to classrooms that do not use technology? A study-level meta-analytic validation was also conducted for purposes of comparison.
Tamim, R., Bernard, R., Borokhovski, E., Abrami, P., & Schmid, R. (2011). What forty years of research says about the impact of technology on learning: A second-order meta-analysis and validation study. Review of Educational Research, 81(1), 4–28. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/f8fa/160a2552568e102b0cac11ad0a48fc635b0e.pdf?_ga=2.248632325.343379521.1591299854-1379934943.1547574243
This chapter presents the conceptual and operational underpinnings of a problem-solving special education system designed to improve educational results for students with disabilities.
Tilly III, W. D. (2002). Best Practices in School Psychology as a Problem-Solving Enterprise.
This chapter presents the conceptual and operational underpinnings of a problem-solving special education system designed to improve educational results for students with disabilities.
Tilly, W. D. III. (2002). Best Practices in School Psychology as a Problem-Solving Enterprise. In A. Thomas & J. Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology IV (pp. 21-36). Washington, DC, US: National Association of School Psychologists.
This paper examines some of the challenges and strengths of virtual schools, it offers questions to consider when deciding whether or not a virtual school option would be ideal, and it draws conclusions, which provide an outlook for the future of virtual schools in k-12 education.
Toppin, I. N., & Toppin, S. M. (2016). Virtual schools: The changing landscape of K–12 education in the U.S. Education and Information Technologies, 21(6), 1571–1581.
The purpose of this study is the examination of low-cost interventions to improve the performance of disadvantaged students. The intervention was designed to improve the performance of students by providing small-group tutoring sessions. The research found that children who received tutoring progressed more in math compared to children in control schools (effect size = +0.19).
Torgerson, C. J., Bell, K., Coleman, E., Elliott, L., Fairhurst, C., Gascoine, L., Hewitt, C. E., & Torgerson, D. J. (2018). Tutor Trust: Affordable Primary Tuition. The Education Endowment Foundation (EEF).
This article provides a case study (focus on an eighth-grader with autism) within a case study (focus on an urban middle school) in terms of the implementation of positive behavior support (PBS).
Turnbull, A., Bohanon, H., Griggs, P., Wickham, D., Sailor, W., Freeman, R., ... & Warren, J. (2002). A blueprint for schoolwide positive behavior support: Implementation of three components. Exceptional Children, 68(3), 377–402.
As students and educators go back to school across the country, and as Congress continues to debate how to fix the law commonly known as No Child Left Behind, the U.S. Department of Education announced today that states whose waivers from certain provisions of federal education law will expire at the end of the 2013-2014 school year will soon be able to request renewals of their reform plans, for up to two more years.
U.S. Department of Education (2017). States granted waivers from No Child Left Behind allowed to reapply for renewal for 2014 and 2015 school years. Retrieved from https://www.ed.gov/news/press-releases/states-granted-waivers-no-child-left-behind-allowed-reapply-renewal-2014-and-2015-school-years
In this book, we’ll briefly explore why we’re still only in the early stages of the educational technology revolution. Then we’ll look at how some innovative schools and other organizations are pioneering new methods of personalized learning built on new technology
Vanderkam, L. (2013). Blended learning: A wise giver’s guide to supporting tech-assisted teaching. Washington, DC: Philanthropy Roundtable. https://www.philanthropyroundtable.org/docs/default-source/guidebook-files/blended_learning_guidebook.pdf?sfvrsn=afaba740_0
In this introduction to the special issue, a response-to-instruction approach to learning disabilities (LD) identification is discussed
Vaughn, S., & Fuchs, L. S. (2003). Redefining learning disabilities as inadequate response to instruction: The promise and potential problems. Learning disabilities research & practice, 18(3), 137-146.
This research looked at test score gaps for a range of populations: between boys and girls; between black, white, and Hispanic children; between the children and the mother’s education; between children in poor and nonpoor families; and the gaps between high-poverty and low-poverty schools. They wanted to know whether gaps grow faster during summer or the school year. They were unable to answer this question as the results were inconclusive. Although, von Hippel and Hamrock did find the total gap in performance from kindergarten to eighth grade, is substantially smaller than the gap that exists at the time children enter school. The conclusion is that gaps happen mostly in the first five years of life. study suggests students who are behind peers at the time they enter kindergarten should receive early remedial instruction as the most efficacious way to improve overall performance.
von Hippel, P. T., & Hamrock, C. (2019). Do test score gaps grow before, during, or between the school years? Measurement artifacts and what we can know in spite of them. Sociological Science, 6, 43-80.
As suggested by the title, the purpose of this Handbook on Restructuring and Substantial School Improvement is to provide principles for restructuring and substantially improving schools. Sponsored by the US Department of Education, the Center on Innovation & Improvement (CII) engaged leading experts on restructuring and school improvement to prepare modules for this handbook to assist states, districts, and schools in establishing policies.
Walberg, H. J. (2007). Handbook on restructuring and substantial school improvement. IAP.
Expanded School Mental Health Programs: Advancing Reform and Closing the Gap Between Research and Practice
Weist, M. D., & Christodulu, K. V. (2000). Expanded school mental health programs: Advancing reform and closing the gap between research and practice. Journal of School Health, 70(5), 195-200.
In the context of trying to improve reading proficiency in elementary school students, this study investigated the use of digital technology as part of a blended learning program, Core5, in kindergarten and first grade classes.
Wilkes, S., Kazakoff, E. R., Prescott, J. E., Bundschuh, K., Hook, P. E., Wolf, R.,… Macaruso, P. (2020). Measuring the impact of a blended learning model on early literacy growth. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning. Advance online publication. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/jcal.12429
This quantitative meta-analysis examines impact of the principal's leadership on student achievement.
Witziers, B., Bosker, R. J., & Kr�ger, M. L. (2003). Educational leadership and student achievement: The elusive search for an association. Educational administration quarterly, 39(3), 398-425.
In this Education Trends report, Education Commission of the States addresses some of the more frequent questions, including the impact of instructional time on achievement, variation in school start dates, and trends in school day and year length.
Woods, J. R. (2015). Instructional Time Trends. Education Trends. Education Commission of the States.