This study was guided by a reduced version of the Self-System Process Model developed by Connell. This paper report the optimal and risk thresholds for the Student Performance and Commitment Index (SPCI) and engagement, and then data on how much engagement matters for later success in school are presented.
Klem, A. M., & Connell, J. P. (2004). Relationships matter: Linking teacher support to student engagement and achievement. Journal of school health, 74(7), 262-273.
This is a meta-analysis that examines teacher-student relations impact on student performance.
Learner-centered teacher-student relationships are effective: A meta-analysis Retrieved from http://rer.sagepub.com/content/77/1/113.full?patientinform-links=yes&legid=sprer;77/1/113.
This paper examines teacher education textbooks for discussion of research-based strategies that every teacher candidate should learn in order to promote student learning and retention.
Learning About Learning: What Every New Teacher Needs to Know Retrieved from http://www.nctq.org/dmsView/Learning_About_Learning_Report.
This paper examines teacher education textbooks for discussion of research-based strategies that every teacher candidate should learn in order to promote student learning and retention.
Learning About Learning: What Every New Teacher Needs to Know Retrieved from http://www.nctq.org/dmsView/Learning_About_Learning_Report.
This study compared the impact of long and short reprimands on children's off-task behavior in a classroom.
Abramowitz, A. J., O'Leary, S. G., & Futtersak, M. W. (1988). The relative impact of long and short reprimands on children's off-task behavior in the classroom. Behavior Therapy, 19(2), 243-247.
This book provides a basic understanding of the principles and practices of applied behavior analysis for use by teachers in the classroom.
Alberto, P., & Troutman, A. C. (2006). Applied behavior analysis for teachers.
This research objective was to study soft skills of new teachers in the secondary schools of Khon Kaen Secondary Educational Service Area 25, Thailand. The data were collected from 60 purposive samples of new teachers by interviewing and questionnaires. The results of this study were informed that new teachers have all of soft skills at high level totally. Communicative skills were highest among seven of soft skills and next Life-long learning and information management skills, Critical and problem solving skills, Team work skills, Ethics, moral and professional skills, Leadership skills and Innovation invention and development skills were lowest in all skills. Based on the research findings obtained, the sub-skills of seven soft skills will be considered and utilized in the package of teacher development program of next research.
Attakorn, K., Tayut, T., Pisitthawat, K., & Kanokorn, S. (2014). Soft skills of new teachers in the secondary schools of Khon Kaen Secondary Educational Service Area 25, Thailand. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 112, 1010-1013.
This article shared information about the Wing Institute and demographics of the Summit participants. It introduced the Summit topic, sharing performance data on past efforts of school reform that focused on structural changes rather than teaching improvement. The conclusion is that the system has spent enormous resources with virtually no positive results. The focus needs to be on teaching improvement.
Aud, S., Hussar, W., Kena, G., Bianco, K., Frohlich, L., Kemp, J., & Tahan, K. (2011). The
Condition of Education 2011 (NCES 2011-033). Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/
Florida Department of Education. (n.d.). Class Size Reduction Amendment. Retrieved from
Gardner, D. P., Larsen, Y. W., Baker, W. O., Campbell, A., Crosby, E. A., Foster, C. A., Jr.,
...Wallace, R. (1983). A Nation at risk: The imperative for educational reform. An open letter
to the American people. A report to the nation and the secretary of education. Retrieved
Gorman, S. (2010). An Introduction to NAEP. (NCES 2010-468). Retrieved from http://nces.
Grady, S., & Bielick, S. (2010). Trends in the Use of School Choice: 1993 to 2007 (NCES 2010-
004). Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2010/2010004.pdf
Hall, D., & Gutierrez, A. S. (1998). Getting Honest about High School Graduation. [PowerPoint
slides]. Retrieved from http://www.edtrust.org/sites/edtrust.org/fles/publications/fles/
Howell, W., Peterson, P. E., & West, M. (2007).What Americans think about their schools: The
2007 Education Next—PEPG Survey. Education Next, 7(4), 12-26. Retrieved from http://
Luckie, M. S. (2009). California’s class-size-reduction program: Total spending since 1996.
[Interactive Graph]. Retrieved from http://californiawatch.org/k-12/californias-class-sizereduction-program-total-spending-1996
National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). (2010). The Nation’s Report Card: Grade
12 Reading and Mathematics 2009 National and Pilot State Results. (NCES 2011–455).
Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/pdf/main2009/2011455.pdf
National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). (2011a). Fast Facts. Retrieved from http://
National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). (2011b). The Nation’s Report Card:
Mathematics 2011. (NCES 2012–458). Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department
of Education, Washington, DC.
National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). (2011c). The Nation’s Report Card:
Reading 2011. (NCES 2012–457). Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of
Education, Washington, DC.
National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). (2011d). Data Explorer for Long-Term Trend.
[Data fle]. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/lttdata/
National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). (2012a). Mathematics: Grade 12 National
Results. Retrieved from http://nationsreportcard.gov/math_2009/gr12_national.asp?subtab_
National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). (2012b). Reading: Grade 12 National Results.
Retrieved from http://nationsreportcard.gov/reading_2009/gr12_national.asp?subtab_
Nichols, A., & Özek, U. (2010). Public School Choice and Student Achievement in the
District of Columbia. (Working Paper 53). Retrieved from National Center for Analysis of
Longitudinl Data in Education Research - Urban Institute website: http://www.urban.org/
Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). (2006). PISA 2006
Technical Report. Paris: Author.
Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). (2010a). PISA 2009
Results: Learning to Learn – Student Engagement, Strategies and Practices (Volume III).
Proceedings of the 5th Annual Summit Introduction
Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). (2010b). PISA 2009
Results: What Makes a School Successful? – Resources, Policies and Practices (Volume
IV). Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264091559-en
Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). (2010c). PISA 2009
Results: What Students Know and Can Do – Student Performance in Reading, Mathematics
and Science (Volume I). Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264091450-en
Snyder, T. D., & Dillow, S. A. (2010). Digest of Education Statistics, 2009. (NCES 2010-013).
Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2010/2010013.pdf
Snyder, T. D., & Dillow, S.A. (2011). Digest of Education Statistics 2010 (NCES 2011-015).
Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2011/2011015.pdf
Stillwell, R. (2010). Public School Graduates and Dropouts From the Common Core of Data:
School Year 2007–08. (NCES 2010-341). National Center for Education Statistics, Institute
of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC. Retrieved from
Zinth, K. (2010). Class-Size Policies. Retrieved from Education Commission of the States
Differential reinforcement of appropriate behavior is an important skill for classroom teachers. This study examined the use of performance feedback to increase the rate of differential reinforcement by pre-service teachers.
Auld, R. G., Belfiore, P. J., & Scheeler, M. C. (2010). Increasing Pre-service Teachers’ Use of Differential Reinforcement: Effects of Performance Feedback on Consequences for Student Behavior. Journal of Behavioral Education, 19(2), 169-183.
This study examined whether associations between teacher policies and student achievement were mediated by the teacher–student relationship climate. Results of this study were threefold. These findings are discussed in light of their educational policy implications.
Barile, J. P., Donohue, D. K., Anthony, E. R., Baker, A. M., Weaver, S. R., & Henrich, C. C. (2012). Teacher–student relationship climate and school outcomes: Implications for educational policy initiatives. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 41(3), 256-267.
This study surveys master's-level elementary, secondary, and special education students about their coursework and applied training in 25 behavioral instruction practices and principles.
Begeny, J. C., & Martens, B. K. (2006). Assessing pre-service teachers' training in empirically-validated behavioral instruction practices. School Psychology Quarterly, 21(3), 262.
In this article aspects of lecturing are explored. Attention is given to explaining and to other strategies of lecturing and to the possibility of demarcating certain lecturing styles.
Behr, A. L. (1988). Exploring the lecture method: An empirical study. Studies in Higher Education, 13(2), 189-200.
This paper is a review of the literature on classroom formative assessment.
Black, P., & Wiliam, D. (1998). Assessment and classroom learning. Assessment in education, 5(1), 7-74.
This study was conducted to create a reliable and valid low- to medium-inference, multidimensional measure of instructor clarity from seminal work across several academic fields. The five factors were explored in regards to their ability to predict the outcomes. Implications for instructional communication researchers are discussed.
Bolkan, S. (2017). Development and validation of the clarity indicators scale. Communication Education, 66(1), 19-36.
The author shares nine teachable competencies that can serve as a principal's guide for empathy education. This paper will help answer which practices enhance empathy and how will principals know if teachers are implementing them effectively.
Borba, M. (2018). Nine Competencies for Teaching Empathy. Educational Leadership, 76(2), 22-28.
The purpose of this guide is to help district leaders take on the challenge of ensuring that students have equitable access to excellent teachers. It shares some early lessons the Education Trust has learned from districts about the levers available to prioritize low-income students and students of color in teacher quality initiatives. The guide outlines a seven-stage process that can help leaders define their own challenges, explore underlying causes, and develop strategies to ensure all schools and students have equitable access to effective teachers.
Bromberg, M. (2016). Achieving Equitable Access to Strong Teachers: A Guide for District Leaders. Education Trust.
This paper, prepared as a chapter for the "Handbook of Research on Teaching" (third edition), reviews correlational and experimental research linking teacher behavior to student achievement. It focuses on research done in K-12 classrooms during 1973-83, highlighting several large-scale, programmatic efforts.
Brophy, J., & Good, T. L. (1984). Teacher Behavior and Student Achievement. Occasional Paper No. 73.
This book provides practitioners with a complete guide to implementing response to intervention (RTI) in schools.
Brown-Chidsey, R., & Steege, M. W. (2011). Response to intervention: Principles and strategies for effective practice. Guilford Press.
This meta-analysis looks at the efficacy of behavioral interventions for problem behavior in persons with autism.
Campbell, J. M. (2003). Efficacy of behavioral interventions for reducing problem behavior in persons with autism: a quantitative synthesis of single-subject research. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 24(2), 120-138.
This paper describes a survey of teachers trained in Teacher Expectations and Student Achievement (TESA). The study examined whether teachers: agreed that TESA interactions were useful with today's children; continued to practice the TESA coding and observation process after being trained; and would recommend TESA to colleagues.
Cantor, J., Kester, D., & Miller, A. (2000). Amazing Results! Teacher Expectations and Student Achievement (TESA) Follow-Up Survey of TESA-Trained Teachers in 45 States and the District of Columbia.
This book provide detailed information on how to systematically and explicitly teach essential reading skills. The procedures describe in this text have been shown to benefit all student, especially powerful with the most vulnerable learners, children who are at risk because of poverty, disability, or limited knowledge of English.
Carnine, D., Silbert, J., Kameenui, E. J., & Tarver, S. G. (1997). Direct instruction reading. Columbus, OH: Merrill.
This book provides evidence-based principles of effective teaching. College students preparing to teach, new teachers struggling to find their way, and experienced teachers eager to hone their skills will benefit from this set of commonsense principles that, when practiced together, will markedly improve student performance.
Chance, P. (2008). The teacher's craft: The 10 essential skills of effective teaching. Waveland PressInc.
This meta-analysis looks at the effectiveness of two strategies in teaching motor skills to students: practice and reciprocal. The research examined two of the 11 teaching strategies identified in Mosston’s Spectrum of Teaching Styles designed for teachers in physical education. Six studies met the criteria for inclusion in this paper. The practice strategy involves the student in the decision-making process. The reciprocal strategy assigns each learner to a specific role: One learner performs the task and the other is the observer who offers immediate and ongoing feedback using a criteria sheet designed by the teacher. At the end of the practice, the students switch roles.
The study showed a very large effect size of 1.16 for the practice strategy, and a large effect size of 0.94 for the reciprocal strategy. It would not be surprising to see these particularly large effect sizes moderated in subsequent replication studies (Makel & Plucker, 2014; van Aert & van Assen, 2018). The study confirms previous research on reciprocal teaching as an effective instructional strategy. Reciprocal teaching has been found to be a powerful strategy for teaching reading and other academic subjects. John Hattie (1995) reported an effect size of 0.74 for reciprocal teaching. The takeaway from this meta-analysis is that practice and reciprocal styles have positive effects on motor skill acquisition.
Chatoupis, C., & Vagenas, G. (2018). Effectiveness of the practice style and reciprocal style of teaching: A meta-analysis. Physical Educator, 75(2), 175–194.
This study presents the Teacher Clarity Short Inventory (TCSI) as an alternative to existing measures of teacher clarity. Analyses revealed a 10 item scale with an acceptable factor structure, acceptable reliability and validity.
Chesebro, J. L., & McCroskey, J. C. (1998). The development of the teacher clarity short inventory (TCSI) to measure clear teaching in the classroom. Communication Research Reports, 15(3), 262-266.
Are teachers' impacts on students' test scores ("value-added") a good measure of their quality? This question has sparked debate largely because of disagreement about (1) whether value-added (VA) provides unbiased estimates of teachers' impacts on student achievement and (2) whether high-VA teachers improve students' long-term outcomes. We address these two issues by analyzing school district data from grades 3-8 for 2.5 million children linked to tax records on parent characteristics and adult outcomes. We find no evidence of bias in VA estimates using previously unobserved parent characteristics and a quasi-experimental research design based on changes in teaching staff. Students assigned to high-VA teachers are more likely to attend college, attend higher- ranked colleges, earn higher salaries, live in higher SES neighborhoods, and save more for retirement. They are also less likely to have children as teenagers. Teachers have large impacts in all grades from 4 to 8. On average, a one standard deviation improvement in teacher VA in a single grade raises earnings by about 1% at age 28. Replacing a teacher whose VA is in the bottom 5% with an average teacher would increase the present value of students' lifetime income by more than $250,000 for the average class- room in our sample. We conclude that good teachers create substantial economic value and that test score impacts are helpful in identifying such teachers.
Chetty, R., Freidman, J. N., & Rockhoff, J. E. (2011). The long-term impacts of teachers: Teacher value-added and student outcomes in adulthood. (Working Paper 17699). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. Every Student Succeeds Act, 20 U.S.C. § 6301 et seq. (2015).
The purpose of this literature review is to summarize and provide a methodological analysis of studies using a differential reinforcement to reduce problem behaviors.
Chowdhury, M., & Benson, B. A. (2011). Use of differential reinforcement to reduce behavior problems in adults with intellectual disabilities: A methodological review. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 32(2), 383-394.
The purpose of this article is to provide an overview for those interested in the current state‐of‐the‐art in time management research. The review demonstrates that time management behaviours relate positively to perceived control of time, job satisfaction, and health, and negatively to stress. The relationship with work and academic performance is not clear. Time management training seems to enhance time management skills, but this does not automatically transfer to better performance.This review makes clear which effects may be expected of time management, which aspects may be most useful for which individuals, and which work characteristics would enhance or hinder positive effects. Its outcomes may help to develop more effective time management practices.
Claessens, B. J., Van Eerde, W., Rutte, C. G., & Roe, R. A. (2007). A review of the time management literature. Personnel Review, 36(2), 255–276.
This study investigates the effect of a school-wide intervention plan, consisting of precorrection and active supervision strategies, on the social behavior of elementary students.
Colvin, G., Sugai, G., Good III, R. H., & Lee, Y. Y. (1997). Using active supervision and precorrection to improve transition behaviors in an elementary school. School Psychology Quarterly, 12(4), 344.
This study investigates the effectiveness of response cost and differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) in reducing the disruptive behaviors of 25 children in a preschool classroom.
Conyers, C., Miltenberger, R., Maki, A., Barenz, R., Jurgens, M., Sailer, A., ... & Kopp, B. (2004). A comparison of response cost and differential reinforcement of other behavior to reduce disruptive behavior in a preschool classroom. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 37(3), 411-415.
This study sought to investigate the impact of a supplemental program’s script on the rate of on-task and off-task instructional opportunities offered by the instructor for students to practice the specific skills targeted in lesson exercises.
Cooke, N. L., Galloway, T. W., Kretlow, A. G., & Helf, S. (2011). Impact of the script in a supplemental reading program on instructional opportunities for student practice of specified skills. The Journal of Special Education, 45(1), 28-42.
This article describes what communication strategies are and provides an overview of the teachability issue, discussing the arguments for and against strategy instruction, and suggests three possible reasons for the existing controversy.
Dörnyei, Z. (1995). On the teachability of communication strategies. TESOL quarterly, 29(1), 55-85.
This study examines the impact of explicit instruction strategies on student mathematic performance.
Darch, C., Carnine, D., & Gersten, R. (1984). Explicit instruction in mathematics problem solving. The Journal of Educational Research, 351-359.
This paper provides procedures for developing curriculum-based measurement systems in special education problem solving.
Deno, S. L., & Fuchs, L. S. (1987). Developing Curriculum-Based Measurement Systems for Data-Based Special Education Problem Solving. Focus on Exceptional Children, 19(8), 1-16.
The Institute of Education Sciences (IES) recently released a summary report of the impact of School Improvement Grants (SIG). The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 provided states and school districts with $3 Billion for SIG. By accepting SIG grants states agreed to implement one of four interventions to improve the lowest performing schools: transformation, turnaround, restart, or closure. The goals of SIG were to improve practices in four main areas: (1) adopting comprehensive instructional reform strategies, (2) developing and increasing teacher and principal effectiveness, (3) increasing learning time and creating community-oriented schools, and (4) having operational flexibility and receiving support. The report finds minimal positive effects from the grants and no evidence that SIG had significant impacts on math and reading scores, graduation rates, or increased college enrollment.
Dragoset, L., Thomas, J., Herrmann, M., Deke, J., James-Burdumy, S., Graczewski, C., … & Giffin, J. (2017). School Improvement Grants: Implementation and Effectiveness (No. 76bce3f4bb0944f29a481fae0dbc7cdb). Mathematica Policy Research.
Reports a meta-analysis of research on the bases of teacher expectancies. The following conclusions were drawn: Student attractiveness, conduct, cumulative folder information, race, and social class were related to teacher expectancies.
Dusek, J. B., & Joseph, G. (1983). The bases of teacher expectancies: A meta-analysis. Journal of Educational psychology, 75(3), 327.
This monograph presents a synthesis of the literature on empirically supported effective teaching principles that have been derived from research on behavioral, cognitive, social-learning, and other theories.
Ellis, E. S., Worthington, L. A., & Larkin, M. J. (1994). research synthesis on effective teaching principles and the design of quality tools for educators.(Tech. Rep. No. 6). Eugene, OR: University of Oregon, National Center to Improve the Tools of Educators.
This study is a meta-analysis of behavioral treatment studies and behavior modification for children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Fabiano, G. A., Pelham Jr, W. E., Coles, E. K., Gnagy, E. M., Chronis-Tuscano, A., & O'Connor, B. C. (2009). A meta-analysis of behavioral treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Clinical Psychology Review, 29(2), 129-140
This is a literature review of culture and student behavior. Based on this review, general recommendations are presented for practitioners, personnel preparers, policy makers, and researchers, especially, in the context of implementing SWPBS.
Fallon, L. M., O’Keeffe, B. V., & Sugai, G. (2012). Consideration of Culture and Context in School-Wide Positive Behavior Support A Review of Current Literature. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 14(4), 209-219.
Thirty-one studies were located in each of which students and faculty specified the instructional characteristics they considered particularly important to good teaching and effective instruction.
Feldman, K. A. (1988). Effective college teaching from the students' and faculty's view: Matched or mismatched priorities?. Research in Higher Education, 28(4), 291-329.
This paper aim to determine the correlation between teacher clarity and the mean class student learning (achievement gain) in normal public-education classes in English-speaking, industrialized countries.
Fendick, F. (1992). The correlation between teacher clarity of communication and student achievement gain: A meta-analysis.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of contingent teacher praise, as specified by Canter's Assertive Discipline programme, on children's on task behaviour. Continuous data collection indicated that following training in the appropriate use of praise, as specified by Canter, all three teachers successfully increased their rates of praising. Of the 24 children, all but one evidenced increases in levels of on‐task behaviour.
Ferguson, E. & Houghton, S. (1992). The effects of contingent teacher praise, as specified by Canter's Assertive Discipline programme, on children's on-task behaviour. Educational Studies, 18(1), 83-93.
This study evaluates the effectiveness of the Level System (token economy, response cost, stimulating rewards, and strategic attention) in a preschool classroom compared to (a) strategies already employed by the teacher, and (b) coaching the teacher in the Child-Directed Interaction and Parent-Directed Interaction phases of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy.
Filcheck, H. A., McNeil, C. B., Greco, L. A., & Bernard, R. S. (2004). Using a whole?class token economy and coaching of teacher skills in a preschool classroom to manage disruptive behavior. Psychology in the Schools, 41(3), 351-361.
This study compares cognitive restructuring, response cost, or placebo control conditions to examine the impact on aggressive elementary school students.
Forman, S. G. (1980). A comparison of cognitive training and response cost procedures in modifying aggressive behavior of elementary school children. Behavior Therapy, 11(4), 594-600.
Research begun in the 1960s provided the impetus for teacher educators to urge classroom teachers to establish classroom rules, deliver high rates of verbal/nonverbal praise, and, whenever possible, to ignore minor student provocations. The research also discuss several newer strategies that warrant attention.
Gable, R. A., Hester, P. H., Rock, M. L., & Hughes, K. G. (2009). Back to basics: Rules, praise, ignoring, and reprimands revisited. Intervention in School and Clinic, 44(4), 195-205.
In this article, a case is made for improving the school success of ethnically diverse students through culturally responsive teaching and for preparing teachers in preservice education programs with the knowledge, attitudes, and skills needed to do this.
Gay, G. (2002). Preparing for culturally responsive teaching. Journal of teacher education, 53(2), 106-116.
Combining insights from multicultural education theory with real-life classroom stories, this book demonstrates that all students will perform better on multiple measures of achievement when teaching is filtered through students’ own cultural experiences. This perennial bestseller continues to be the go-to resource for teacher professional learning and preservice courses.
Gay, G. (2018). Culturally responsive teaching: Theory, research, and practice. Teachers College Press.
This article evaluates the extent to which quantity of instruction influences time spent on self‐
study and achievement. The results suggest that time spent on self‐study is primarily a function of the degree of time allocated to instruction.
Gijselaers, W. H., & Schmidt, H. G. (1995). Effects of quantity of instruction on time spent on learning and achievement. Educational Research and Evaluation, 1(2), 183-201.
This book discuss how extrinsic incentives may come into conflict with other motivations and examine the research literature in which monetary incentives have been used in a nonemployment context to foster the desired behavior. The conclusion sums up some lessons on when extrinsic incentives are more or less likely to alter such behaviors in the desired directions.
Gneezy, U., Meier, S., & Rey-Biel, P. (2011). When and why incentives (don't) work to modify behavior. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 25(4), 191-210.
This report examines teacher preparation in classroom management. It surveyed over 100 elementary and secondary, graduate and undergraduate programs.
Greenberg, J., Putman, H., and Walsh, K. (2013). Training Our future Teachers: Classroom Management. Date accessed: 5/7/14
This study examined teachers' relational approach to discipline as a predictor of high school students' behavior and their trust in teacher authority.
Gregory, A., & Ripski, M. B. (2008). Adolescent trust in teachers: Implications for behavior in the high school classroom. School Psychology Review, 37(3), 337.
This study examines the effects of contingent teacher attention on study behavior.
Hall, R. V., Lund, D., & Jackson, D. (1968). EFFECTS OF TEACHER ATTENTION ON STUDY BEHAVIOR1. Journal of applied behavior analysis, 1(1), 1-12.
This report and podcast examines the scientific basis for how to teach reading to children. This investigation reveals how children learn to read, emphasizing the five critical components of reading instruction.
Hanford, E, (2018). Hard Words: Why aren’t kids being taught to read? American Public Media (APM). Retrieved from https://www.apmreports.org/story/2018/09/10/hard-words-why-american-kids-arent-being-taught-to-read
This new research addresses a number of critical questions: Are a teacher’s cognitive skills a good predictor of teacher quality? This study examines the student achievement of 36 developed countries in the context of teacher cognitive skills. This study finds substantial differences in teacher cognitive skills across countries that are strongly related to student performance.
Hanushek, E. A., Piopiunik, M., & Wiederhold, S. (2014). The value of smarter teachers: International evidence on teacher cognitive skills and student performance (No. w20727). National Bureau of Economic Research.
This influential book is the result of 15 years research that includes over 800 meta-analyses on the influences on achievement in school-aged students. This is a great resource for any stakeholder interested in conducting a serious search of evidence behind common models and practices used in schools.
Hattie, J. (2009). Visible learning. A synthesis of over, 800.
This book takes over fifteen years of rigorous research into education practices and provides teachers in training and in-service teachers with concise summaries of the most effective interventions and offers practical guidance to successful implementation in classrooms.
Hattie, J. (2012). Visible learning for teachers: Maximizing impact on learning. Routledge.
This study employs an alternating treatments design to investigate the effects of three types of opportunities to respond (i.e., individual, choral, and mixed responding) on sight words and syllable practice in six elementary students with behavioral problems.
Haydon, T., Conroy, M. A., Scott, T. M., Sindelar, P. T., Barber, B. R., & Orlando, A. M. (2010). A comparison of three types of opportunities to respond on student academic and social behaviors. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 18(1), 27-40.
This book reveal the anatomy of ideas that stick and explain ways to make ideas stickier, such as applying the human scale principle, using the Velcro Theory of Memory, and creating curiosity gaps. Along the way, we discover that sticky messages of all kinds draw their power from the same six traits.
Heath, C., & Heath, D. (2007). Made to stick: Why some ideas survive and others die. Random House.
The purpose of this study is to compare different statistical and methodological approaches to standard setting and determining cut scores using R- CBM and performance on high-stakes tests
Hintze, J. M., & Silberglitt, B. (2005). A longitudinal examination of the diagnostic accuracy and predictive validity of R-CBM and high-stakes testing. School Psychology Review, 34(3), 372.
This outstanding textbook presents innovative interventions for youth with severe emotional and behavioral disorders. Community Treatment for Youth is designed to fill a gap between the knowledge base and clinical practice through its presentation of theory, practice parameters, training requirements, and research evidence.
Hoagwood, K. I. M. B. E. R. L. Y., Burns, B. J., & Weisz, J. R. (2002). A profitable conjunction: From science to service in children’s mental health. Community treatment for youth: Evidence-based interventions for severe emotional and behavioral disorders, 327-338.
This study investigated the effects of training preschool teachers to use environmental arrangement and milieu teaching in interactions with children using augmented communication systems. Three teachers were taught seven environmental strategies and four milieu teaching procedures through written materials, lecture, modeling, role-playing, and feedback.
Kaiser, A. P., Ostrosky, M. M., & Alpert, C. L. (1993). Training teachers to use environmental arrangement and milieu teaching with nonvocal preschool children. Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 18(3), 188-199.
The authors examined the effectiveness of self-monitoring for increasing the rates of teacher praise statements and the acceptability of using this technique for teachers. This study's results support the use of self-monitoring to increase effective teaching practices, namely praise, and further demonstrates high social validity for the participant and the students.
Kalis, T. M., Vannest, K. J., & Parker, R. (2007). Praise counts: Using self-monitoring to increase effective teaching practices. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth, 51(3), 20-27.
The purpose of this study is to compare high-quality reinforcers following unprompted responses (differential reinforcement) with high-quality reinforcers following both prompted and unprompted responses (non-differential reinforcement) on the skill acquisition of 2 children with autism.
Karsten, A. M., & Carr, J. E. (2009). The effects of differential reinforcement of unprompted responding on the skill acquisition of children with autism. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 42(2), 327-334.
This meta-analysis examines the impact of formative assessment.
Kingston, N., & Nash, B. (2011). Formative assessment: A meta?analysis and a call for research. Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 30(4), 28-37.
Early intervention is key to preventing academic failure and referral to special education. General educators are responsible for providing primary instruction for students at risk for failure; however, the training they receive related to specific instructional strategies for these students is often insufficient (e.g., 1-day workshops). Alternative forms of professional development that include a combination of in-service and follow-up support have shown more promise in promoting changes in teaching behaviors. This study examined the effects of in-service support plus coaching on kindergarten teachers' accurate delivery of group instructional units in math. Teachers were trained to use a combination of whole-class instruction strategies, including model-lead-test for introducing new concepts and correcting errors, choral responding, and response cards. Results indicated that all teachers improved their delivery of instruction after the in-service training, with a second level of growth achieved after coaching. Teachers also reported high levels of satisfaction using the strategies.
Kretlow, A. G., Wood, C. L., & Cooke, N. L. (2011). Using in-service and coaching to increase kindergarten teachers' accurate delivery of group instructional units. The Journal of Special Education, 44,234-246.
This is a study of the effects on classroom behavior of Rules, Ignoring Inappropriate Behaviors, and showing Approval for Appropriate Behavior.
Madsen Jr, C. H., Becker, W. C., & Thomas, D. R. (1968). Rules, praise, and ignoring: Elements of elementary classroom control. Journal of applied behavior analysis, 1(2), 139.
This is a systematic review to assess the effectiveness of token economies in increasing rates of appropriate classroom behavior for students demonstrating behavioral difficulties.
Maggin, D. M., Chafouleas, S. M., Goddard, K. M., & Johnson, A. H. (2011). A systematic evaluation of token economies as a classroom management tool for students with challenging behavior. Journal of School Psychology, 49(5), 529-554.
This is a study of classroom management on student engagement and achievement.
Marzano, R. J., Pickering, D., & Pollock, J. E. (2001). Classroom instruction that works: Research-based strategies for increasing student achievement. Ascd
The What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) identified five studies of NBPTS certification that both fall within the scope of the Teacher Training, Evaluation, and Compensation topic area and meet WWC group design standards. According to the WWC review, the extent of evidence for teachers who obtained NBPTS certification on the academic achievement of elementary and middle school students was medium to large for two student outcome domains—English language arts achievement and mathematics achievement. NBPTS-certified teachers had mixed effects on mathematics achievement and no discernible effects on English language arts achievement for students in grades 3 through 8.
Mathematica Policy Research (2018). What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report: National Board for Professional Teaching Standards Certification. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Retrieved from https://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/Docs/InterventionReports/wwc_nbpts_021318.pdf.
This study examines the effects of effective command training with teachers on students' compliance rates and academic engagement.
Matheson, A. S., & Shriver, M. D. (2005). Training Teachers to Give Effective Commands: Effects on Student Compliance and Academic Behaviors. School Psychology Review, 34(2), 202-219.
This study provides a description of 34 practicing teachers' beliefs regarding the role of empathy as an attribute in their effectiveness with culturally diverse students. Empathy involves cognitive, affective, and behavioral components that teachers believed were manifested in their practice.
McAllister, G., & Irvine, J. J. (2002). The role of empathy in teaching culturally diverse students: A qualitative study of teachers’ beliefs. Journal of teacher education, 53(5), 433-443.
This study compares the effects of a token reinforcement and a response cost intervention in reducing the disruptive behavior of preschool children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
McGoey, K. E., & DuPaul, G. J. (2000). Token reinforcement and response cost procedures: Reducing the disruptive behavior of preschool children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. School Psychology Quarterly, 15(3), 330.
This book provides tested, easy-to-implement strategies for preventing problem behavior in the classroom and responding effectively when it does occur.
Menzies, H. M., & Bruhn, A. L. (2010). Managing challenging behaviors in schools: Research-based strategies that work. Guilford Press.
This text uses a step by step, evidence-based approach to explain human behavior. Key case studies and examples are used to illustrate key principles.
Miltenberger, R. (2013). Behavior modification: Principles and procedures. Cengage Learning.
This study investigates the effectiveness of an intervention comprised of posted classroom rules, token economy, response cost, and mystery motivators to reduce disruptive classroom behavior.
Mottram, A. M., Bray, M. A., Kehle, T. J., Broudy, M., & Jenson, W. R. (2002). A classroom-based intervention to reduce disruptive behaviors. Journal of Applied School Psychology, 19(1), 65-74.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of group inservice training plus written and verbal feedback on four Head Start teachers’ use of incidental teaching. D
Mudd, J. M., & Wolery, M. (1987). Training head start teachers to use incidental teaching. Journal of the Division for Early Childhood, 11(2), 124-134.
This study uses a multiple baseline design across teachers to evaluate the effects of response-to-intervention on rates of desired teacher behavior..
Myers, D. M., Simonsen, B., & Sugai, G. (2011). Increasing teachers' use of praise with a response-to-intervention approach. Education and treatment of children, 34(1), 35-59.
This study uses a multiple baseline research design across sample and settings to examine the effects of Canter's Assertive Discipline Program on teachers' rates of verbal approval and disapproval, student on task behavior, and the frequency of students' disruptive behavior.
Nicholls, D., & Houghton, S. (1995). The effect of Canter's assertive discipline program on teacher and student behaviour. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 65(2), 197-210
This paper examines the use of systematic sequence of prompt and probe trials to teach picture names to three severely retarded children.
Olenick, D. L., & Pear, J. J. (1980). DIFFERENTIAL REINFORCEMENT OF CORRECT RESPONSES TO PROBES AND PROMPTS IN PICTURE-NAME TRAINING WITH SEVERELY RETARDED CHILDREN. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 13(1), 77-89.
This paper examines the critical role classroom management plays in establishing effective classroom climate and student achievement. It offers recommendations for teacher preparation programs on how improve teacher performance in this essential teaching skill.
Oliver, R. M., & Reschly, D. J. (2007). Effective Classroom Management: Teacher Preparation and Professional Development. TQ Connection Issue Paper. National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality.
This study examined the hypothesis that teachers’ and students’ assessment of preferred LS correspond. The study found no relationship between pupils’ self-assessment and teachers’ assessment. Teachers’ and students’ answers didn’t match up. The study suggests that teachers cannot assess the LS of their students accurately.
Papadatou-Pastou, M., Gritzal, M., & Barrable, A. (2018). The Learning Styles educational neuromyth: Lack of agreement between teachers’ judgments, self-assessment, and students’ intelligence. Frontiers in Education, 3, 1-5. . https://doi.org/10.3389/feduc.2018.00105
This research synthesis examines randomized controlled trials and quasi-experimental research on the mathematics achievement outcomes for elementary school programs. The best outcomes were found for tutoring programs. The findings suggest that programs emphasizing personalization, engagement, and motivation are most impactful in elementary mathematics instruction.
Pellegrini, M., Lake, C., Inns, A, & , Slavin, R. (2018). Effective programs in elementary mathematics: A best-evidence synthesis. Best Evidence Encyclopedia. Retrieved from http://www.bestevidence.org/word/elem_math_Oct_8_2018.pdf
This study examines the effectiveness of a response cost for improving the classroom behavior of four aggressive preschoolers.
Reynolds, L. K., & Kelley, M. L. (1997). The efficacy of a response cost-based treatment package for managing aggressive behavior in preschoolers. Behavior Modification, 21(2), 216-230.
This articles provides information on the effective use of time-out for use by teachers.
Ryan, J. B., Sanders, S., Katsiyannis, A., & Yell, M. L. (2007). Using time-out effectively in the classroom. Teaching Exceptional Children, 39(4), 60-67.
This article discuss how "Micro-Credentialing" offer an opportunity to shift away from credit-hour and continuing-education requirements that dominate the PD apparatus in most states, toward a system based on evidence of progress in specific instructional skills.
Sawchuk, S. (2016). Can "Micro-Credentialing" Salvage Teacher PD?. Education Week. Retrieved from http://www.nysed.gov/common/nysed/files/principal-project-phase-2-micro-credentials-edweek.pdf
This is an experimental test of the mediating function of interpersonal cognitive problem solving skills on behavioral adjustment in preschool and kindergarten children.
Shure, M. B., & Spivack, G. (1981). Interpersonal problem solving as a mediator of behavioral adjustment in preschool and kindergarten children. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 1(1), 29-44.
This study examines the impact of interpersonal cognitive problem solving skills on preventing and reducing impulsive or inhibited behaviors in children.
Shure, M. B., & Spivack, G. (1982). Interpersonal problem-solving in young children: A cognitive approach to prevention. American Journal of Community Psychology, 10(3), 341-356.
The purpose of this paper is to describe a systematic literature search to identify evidence-based classroom management practices.
Simonsen, B., Fairbanks, S., Briesch, A., Myers, D., & Sugai, G. (2008). Evidence-based practices in classroom management: Considerations for research to practice. Education and Treatment of Children, 31(3), 351-380.
This meta-analysis of School-wide Positive Behavior Supports examines 20 articles. Single-case studies were evaluated using a regression-based procedure to establish efficacy of the approach.
Solomon, B. G., Klein, S. A., Hintze, J. M., Cressey, J. M., & Peller, S. L. (2012). A meta?analysis of school?wide positive behavior support: An exploratory study using single?case synthesis. Psychology in the Schools, 49(2), 105-121.
This book is written for school administrators, staff developers, behavior specialists, and instructional coaches to offer guidance in implementing research-based practices that establish effective classroom management in schools. The book provides administrators with practical strategies to maximize the impact of professional development. It focuses on the use of coaching as the most reliable method for bridging the gap between staff development and actual implementation of skills used by teachers consistently and sustainably throughout the school year.
Sprick, et al. (2010). Coaching Classroom Management: Strategies & Tools for Administrators & Coaches. Pacific Northwest Publishing.
This is a meta-analysis to look at the impact of interventions to decrease disruptive classroom behavior in public education settings.
Stage, S. A., & Quiroz, D. R. (1997). A meta-analysis of interventions to decrease disruptive classroom behavior in public education settings. School Psychology Review, 26(3), 333-368.
The article describes the problem of assessing culturally diverse students for behavior disorders, proposes a solution which replaces norm referenced assessment with functional assessment, and offers recommendations for implementing such a nonbiased, functional approach.
Sugai, G., & Maheady, L. (1988). Cultural Diversity and Individual Assessment for Behavior Disorders. Teaching Exceptional Children, 21(1), 28-31.
The purposes of this study are to examine an observation-feedback intervention on teacher's behavior-specific praise of students with emotional and behavioral disorders and the effect of increased rates of a teacher's behavior-specific praise on the on-task behavior of the students.
Sutherland, K. S., Wehby, J. H., & Copeland, S. R. (2000). Effect of varying rates of behavior-specific praise on the on-task behavior of students with EBD. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 8(1), 2-8.
This study has 2 purposes: examine the effect of an observation-feedback intervention on the rate of a teacher's behavior-specific praise of students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) and the effect of increased rates of a teacher's behavior-specific praise on the on-task behavior of a class of students with EBD.
Sutherland, K. S., Wehby, J. H., & Copeland, S. R. (2000). Effect of varying rates of behavior-specific praise on the on-task behavior of students with EBD. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 8(1), 2-8.
The meta-analysis looks at the effect of enhanced instruction on motor skill acquisition of 4-5 yr old children and 4th-21th graders in Israel.
Tenenbaum, G., & Goldring, E. (1989). A meta-analysis of the effect of enhanced instruction: Cues, participation, reinforcement and feedback and correctives on motor skill learning. Journal of Research & Development in Education. 22(3) 53-64.
This article summarize changes and challenges that school personnel will face in order to implement The Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (IDEIA).
"The Mirage" describes the widely held perception among education leaders that they already know how to help teachers improve, and that they could achieve their goal of great teaching in far more classrooms if they just applied what they knew more widely. However, research suggests that despite enormous and admirable investments of time and money, education leaders are much further from that goal than has been acknowledged, and the evidence base for what actually helps teachers improve is very thin. Like a "mirage," it is not a hallucination but a refraction of reality: Growth is possible, but the goal of widespread teaching excellence is further out of reach than it seems. This report presents findings from surveys and interviews and offers recommendations including: (1) "Redefining" what it means to help teachers improve; (2) "Reevaluating" existing professional learning supports and programs; and (3) "Reinventing" how we support effective teaching at scale. The following are appended: (1) The Mirage: Technical Appendix of Data and Analysis; (2) Detailed Summary Method for Estimating Teacher Improvement Spending; and (3) Overview of the Development Profile Analysis. Endnotes are also included.
TNTP. (2015). The Mirage: Confronting the truth about our quest for teacher development. Retrieved from: https://tntp.org/publications/view/the-mirage-confronting-the-truth-about-our-quest-for-teacher-development
Of Edward Tufte’s books, this is the most design oriented. It provides examples using maps, charts, scientific presentations, diagrams, computer interfaces, statistical graphics and tables, stereo photographs, guidebooks, courtroom exhibits, timetables, use of color, and a pop-up to illustrate his points on the effective use of visual mediums to communicate the meaning of data and impart important messages.
Tufte, E. R. (1990). Envisioning Information (1990). Cheshire, CT: Graphics press.
This is the first book from Edward Tufte and it lays out his theories and rules that are the basis for the effective display of information and data to maximize communication.
Tufte, E. R. (2001). The visual display of quantitative information. Edition 2 (Vol. 2). Cheshire, CT: Graphics press.
This third book by Edward Tufte is a guide on how to more effectively communicate information visually. It offers examples of poorly presented information and the dire consequences that can result from mediocre and inadequately thought out presentations. It provides concrete samples of effective ways to present statistics and tips one can use to avoid many of the pitfalls of powerpoint presentations.
Tufte, E. R., & Weise Moeller, E. (1997). Visual explanations: images and quantities, evidence and narrative (Vol. 36). Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press.
This study investigated preservice teachers' perceived barriers for implementing multicultural curriculum with preservice teachers as they began their teacher education program.
Van Hook, C. W. (2002). Preservice teachers' perceived barriers to the implementation of a multicultural curriculum. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 29(4), 254-265.
The current single-subject meta-analysis investigates the effect of time-out for the reduction of disruptive classroom behaviors in non-developmentally delayed children.
Vegas, K. C., Jenson, W. R., & Kircher, J. C. (2007). A Single-Subject Meta-Analysis of the Effectiveness of Time-Out in Reducing Disruptive Classroom Behavior. Behavioral Disorders, 32(2), 109-121.
This paper reviews research on the effectiveness of differential reinforcement as treatment and describes important areas of future research.
Vladescu, J. C., & Kodak, T. (2010). A review of recent studies on differential reinforcement during skill acquisition in early intervention. Journal of applied behavior analysis, 43(2), 351-355.
This literature review examines the impact of various instructional methods
Walberg H. J. (1999). Productive teaching. In H. C. Waxman & H. J. Walberg (Eds.) New directions for teaching, practice, and research (pp. 75-104). Berkeley, CA: McCutchen Publishing.
This study examined the social attitudes related to race, gender, age, and ability among senior level health education students at a mid-sized university in the southeast by means of a personally experienced critical incident involving a cross-cultural incident.
Wasson, D. H., & Jackson, M. H. (2002). Assessing cross-cultural sensitivity awareness: A basis for curriculum change. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 29(4), 265-277.
Help your students understand the perspectives of other people with these tried-and-tested methods.
Wilson, D., & Conyers, M. (2017). 4 proven strategies for teaching empathy.Edutopia. Retrieved from https://www.edutopia.org/article/4-proven-strategies-teaching-empathy-donna-wilson-marcus-conyers
This policy brief surveys historical and contemporary trends in teacher preparation, and explores what is known about the quality of five of the most prominent independent teacher education programs in the U.S., including their impact on teacher quality and student learning. The author's analysis demonstrates that claims regarding the success of such programs are not substantiated by peer-reviewed research and program evaluations.
Zeichner, K. (2016). Independent Teacher Education Programs: Apocryphal Claims, Illusory Evi-dence. Boulder, CO: National Education Policy Center. Retrieved from http://nepc.colorado.edu/publication/teacher-education
Zlomke, K., & Zlomke, L. (2003). Token economy plus self -monitoring to reduce disruptive classroom behaviors. Behavior Analyst Today, 4(2), 177-182.