Monitoring Systems

All Research

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Research standards in early intervention: Defining, describing, and measuring the independent variable

The purpose of this paper is to describe methodological issues related to the independent variable in early intervention research. Three standards related to the independent variable are proposed:

LeLAURIN, K. A. T. H. R. Y. N., & Wolery, M. (1992). Research standards in early intervention: Defining, describing, and measuring the independent variable. Journal of Early Intervention16(3), 275-287.

Handbook of research in emotional and behavioral disorders

This book brings together 70 top researchers and scholars in the field to address the major foundational, assessment, characteristics, intervention, and methodological issues facing the field of emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) of children and adolescents

Rutherford, R. B., Quinn, M. M., & Mathur, S. R. (Eds.). (2004). Handbook of research in emotional and behavioral disorders. New York: Guilford Press.

Using brief experimental analysis to select oral reading interventions: An investigation of treatment utility

This study examined the treatment utility of brief experimental analysis for selecting skill-based oral reading interventions that targeted acquisition and fluency. 

VanAuken, T. L., Chafouleas, S. M., Bradley, T. A., & Martens, B. K. (2002). Using brief experimental analysis to select oral reading interventions: An investigation of treatment utility. Journal of Behavioral Education11(3), 163-179.

An objective review of the effectiveness and essential characteristics of performance feedback in organizational settings (1985-1998)

The main objective of the present review was to update the feedback literature review conducted by Balcazar, Hopkins, and Suarez in 1985. The current review identified 68 applications of feedback from 43 studies in applied organizational settings.

Alvero, A. M., Bucklin, B. R., & Austin, J. (2001). An objective review of the effectiveness and essential characteristics of performance feedback in organizational settings (1985-1998). Journal of Organizational Behavior Management21(1), 3-29.

Functional behavioral assessment: A school based model

This paper describe a comprehensive model for the application of behavior analysis in the school. The model includes descriptive assessment, functional analysis, functional behavioral assessment, schools, in-home, problematic behavior. 

Asmus, J. M., Vollmer, T. R., & Borrero, J. C. (2002). Functional behavioral assessment: A school based model. Education & Treatment of Children25(1), 67.

Toward A New Model for Promoting Urban Children's Mental Health: Accessible, Effective, and Sustainable School-Based Mental Health Services.

A program of research related to school-based models for urban children's mental health is described, with a particular focus on improving access to services, promoting children's functioning, and providing for program sustainability.

Atkins, M. S., Graczyk, P. A., Frazier, S. L., & Abdul-Adil, J. (2003). Toward A New Model for Promoting Urban Children's Mental Health: Accessible, Effective, and Sustainable School-Based Mental Health Services. School Psychology Review32(4).

The need for assessment of maintaining variables in OBM

The authors describe three forms of functional assessment used in applied behavior analysis and explain three potential reasons why OBM has not yet adopted the use of such techniques.

Austin, J., Carr, J. E., & Agnew, J. L. (1999). The need for assessment of maintaining variables in OBM. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management19(2), 59-87.

Sent home and put off track. Closing the school discipline gap: Equitable remedies for excessive exclusion

This study examined students who were first time 9th graders in the 2000-01 school year and follows them through to high school and post-secondary outcomes. The 9th grade suspension data finds that black students, students who are economically disadvantaged, and special education students are disproportionately suspended, both in the frequency of suspensions and the duration of days lost. Disciplinary incidents were found to be interrelated with other of indicators of student disengagement from school, such as course failures and absenteeism

Balfanz, R., Byrnes, V., & Fox, J. H. (2015). Sent home and Put off track. Closing the school discipline gap: Equitable remedies for excessive exclusion, 17-30.

Seeing Students Learn Science: Integrating Assessment and Instruction in the Classroom (2017)

Seeing Students Learn Science is a guidebook meant to help educators improve the way in which students learn science. The introduction of new science standards across the nation has led to the adoption of new curricula, instruction, and professional development to align with the new standards. This publication is designed as a resource for educators to adapt assessment to these changes. It includes examples of innovative assessment formats, ways to embed assessments in engaging classroom activities, and ideas for interpreting and using novel kinds of assessment information.

Beatty, A., Schweingruber, H., & National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2017). Seeing Students Learn Science: Integrating Assessment and Instruction in the Classroom. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

Effects of high‐preference single‐digit mathematics problem completion on multiple‐digit mathematics problem performance

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a sequence of three single-digit (1 digit 3 1 digit) multiplication problems on the latency to initiate multiple-digit (3 digit 3 3 digit) multiplication problems for 2 students in an alternative education school

Belfiore, P. J., Lee, D. L., Vargas, A. U., & Skinner, C. H. (1997). Effects of high‐preference single‐digit mathematics problem completion on multiple‐digit mathematics problem performance. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis30(2), 327-330.

Behavioral fluency: Evolution of a new paradigm

This article traces the development of concepts, procedures, and findings associated with fluency and discusses their implications for instructional design and practice. It invites further controlled research and experimental analyses of phenomena that may be significant in the future evolution of educational technology and in the analysis of complex behavior.

Binder, C. (1996). Behavioral fluency: Evolution of a new paradigm. The behavior analyst19(2), 163-197.

Human variable ratio performance

The generality of the mathematical principles of reinforcement (MPR) was tested with humans.

Bizo, L. A., Remington, B., D’Souza, L. S., Heighway, S. K., & Baston, C. (2002). Human variable ratio performance. Learning and motivation33(4), 411-432.

STATE END-OF-COURSE TESTING PROGRAMS: A Policy Brief

In recent years the number of states that have adopted or plan to implement end of course (EOC) tests as part of their high school assessment program has grown rapidly. While EOC tests certainly offer great promise, they are not without challenges. Many of the proposed uses of EOC tests open new and often complex issues related to design and implementation. The purpose of this brief is to support education leaders and policy makers in making appropriate technical and operational decisions to maximize the benefit of EOC tests and address the challenges.

Brief, A. P. (2011). State End-of-Course Testing Programs.

An approach to functional assessment and analysis of disruptive behavior in regular education classrooms.

Conducted classroom observations and functional assessments for 3 male elementary school students (aged 6–9 yrs old) referred for disruptive behavior. A descriptive assessment was first conducted to select 1 of 3 hypotheses regarding potential variables maintaining the disruptive behavior: teacher attention, peer attention, or escape from academic tasks. 

Broussard, C. D., & Northup, J. (1995). An approach to functional assessment and analysis of disruptive behavior in regular education classrooms. School Psychology Quarterly10(2), 151.

Strategies and tactics for promoting generalization and maintenance of young children's social behavior

Employing a conceptual framework of generalization strategies proposed by Stokes and Osnes (1986), the authors selectively reviewed the research literature concerning interventions to improve young children's social behavior and strategies for promoting generalization and maintenance of young children's social responding. Three basic strategies are discussed. 

Brown, W. H., & Odom, S. L. (1994). Strategies and tactics for promoting generalization and maintenance of young children's social behavior. Research in Developmental Disabilities15(2), 99-118.

Positive practice overcorrection: The effects of duration of positive practice on acquisition and response reduction

The effects of long and short durations of positive practice overcorrection were studied, for the reduction of off-task behavior after an instruction to perform an object-placement task. 

Carey, R. G., & Bucher, B. (1983). Positive practice overcorrection: The effects of duration of positive practice on acquisition and response reduction. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis16(1), 101-109.

Increasing the Rate of Presentation and Use of Signals in Elementary Classroom Teachers.

Two issues relevant to competency-based teacher training were investigated--the specification of acceptable implementation levels for validated techniques and the necessity and feasibility of providing training on those techniques

Carnine, D. W., & Fink, W. T. (1978). Increasing the Rate of Presentation and Use of Signals in Elementary Classroom Teachers. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis11(1), 35-46.

The effects of severe behavior problems in children on the teaching behavior of adults

This child-effects concept was explored empirically in a study involving 12 adults who were asked to teach four pairs of children in which one member of the pair exhibited problem behavior and the other typically did not.

Carr, E. G., Taylor, J. C., & Robinson, S. (1991). The effects of severe behavior problems in children on the teaching behavior of adults. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis24(3), 523-535.

Generalization and maintenance of preschool children's social skills: A critical review and analysis

This paper summarizes the results of a retrospective review of generalization in the context of social skills research with preschool children.

Chandler, L. K., Lubeck, R. C., & Fowler, S. A. (1992). Generalization and maintenance of preschool children's social skills: A critical review and analysis. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis25(2), 415-428.

The 2018 EdNext poll on school reform

Few issues engender stronger opinions in the American population than education, and the number and complexity of issues continue to grow.  The annual Education Next Survey of Public Opinion examines the opinions of parents and teachers across a wide range of topic areas such as: student performance, common core curriculum, charter schools, school choice, teacher salaries, school spending, school reform, etc.  The 12thAnnual Survey was completed in May, 2018.

Cheng, A., Henderson, M. B., Peterson, P.E. & West, M. R. (2019). The 2018 EdNext poll on school reform. Education Next19(1).

Proactive strategies for managing social behavior problems: An instructional approach

There are clear parallels between instructional problems and social problems in both the way the respective behaviors are established and in the design of possible remedies. These parallels are identified and a basic instructional plan is presented for remedying social problems.

Colvin, G., & Sugai, G. (1988). Proactive strategies for managing social behavior problems: An instructional approach. Education and Treatment of Children, 341-348.

Emergence of reinforcer preference as a function of schedule requirements and stimulus similarity

Tustin (1994) recently observed that an individual’s preference for one of two concurrently available reinforcers under low schedule requirements switched to the other reinforcer when the schedule requirements were high. This paper extended this line of research by examining preference for similar and dissimilar reinforcers. 

Deleon, I. G., Iwata, B. A., GOH, H. L., & Worsdell, A. S. (1997). Emergence of reinforcer preference as a function of schedule requirements and stimulus similarity. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis30(3), 439-449.

Understanding Why Students Drop Out of High School, According to Their Own Reports:

This study examines seven nationally representative studies on school dropout and their findings on why students dropout of school. 

Doll, J. J., Eslami, Z., & Walters, L. (2013). Understanding why students drop out of high school, according to their own reports: Are they pushed or pulled, or do they fall out? A comparative analysis of seven nationally representative studies. Sage Open, 3(4), 2158244013503834.

Choice making to promote adaptive behavior for students with emotional and behavioral challenges

Two analyses investigated the effects of choice making on the responding of elementary school students with emotional and behavioral challenges. 

Dunlap, G., DePerczel, M., Clarke, S., Wilson, D., Wright, S., White, R., & Gomez, A. (1994). Choice making to promote adaptive behavior for students with emotional and behavioral challenges. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis27(3), 505-518.

Functional assessment and program development for problem behavior: a practical handbook

Featuring step-by-step guidance, examples, and forms, this guide to functional assessment procedures provides a first step toward designing positive and educative programs to eliminate serious behavior problems.

EDITION, N. T. T. (2015). Functional assessment and program development for problem behavior: a practical handbook.

Selecting growth measures for school and teacher evaluations: Should proportionality matter?

In this paper we take up the question of model choice and examine three competing approaches. The first approach, (SGPs) framework, eschews all controls for student covariates and schooling environments. The second approach, value-added models (VAMs), controls for student background characteristics and under some conditions can be used to identify the causal effects of schools and teachers. The third approach, also VAM-based, fully levels the playing field so that the correlation between school- and teacher-level growth measures and student demographics is essentially zero. We argue that the third approach is the most desirable for use in educational evaluation systems.

Ehlert, M., Koedel, C., Parsons, E., & Podgursky, M. (2013). Selecting growth measures for school and teacher evaluations: Should proportionality matter?. National Center for Analysis of Longitudinal Data in Education Research, 21.

Classroom management: A critical part of educational psychology, with implications for teacher education

Research on classroom management is reviewed, with an emphasis on lines of inquiry originating in educational psychology with implications for teacher education. 

Emmer, E. T., & Stough, L. M. (2001). Classroom management: A critical part of educational psychology, with implications for teacher education. Educational psychologist36(2), 103-112.

Single-subject research design for school counselors: Becoming an applied researcher

The four applied single-subject research designs presented provide an overview of the most common types of single-subject research designs that can be used by a school counselor. 

Foster, L. H., Watson, T. S., Meeks, C., & Young, J. S. (2002). Single-subject research design for school counselors: Becoming an applied researcher. Professional School Counseling6(2), 146-154.

Reducing Disruptive Behavior in Students with Serious Emotional Disturbance

The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact that a self-contained Least Restrictive Environment (LRE) with a reduced adult to student ratio would have on the frequency of SED students’ on-task behavior and overall lesson engagement throughout the school day. 

Gooding, E. (2017). Reducing Disruptive Behavior in Students with Serious Emotional Disturbance.

The case for performance-based instructional models.

Examines evidence supporting performance-based instructional models. Performance-based instructional models posit change in students' classroom behavior and academic achievement to be a function of changes in instruction. 

Greenwood, C. R. (1996). The case for performance-based instructional models. School Psychology Quarterly11(4), 283.

Interdependent, dependent, and independent group contingencies for controlling disruptive behavior

Three group-oriented contingency systems (interdependent, dependent, and independent) were compared in a modified reversal design to evaluate each system's effectiveness in controlling the disruptive behavior of a self-contained classroom of educable mentally retarded children.

Gresham, F. M., & Gresham, G. N. (1982). Interdependent, dependent, and independent group contingencies for controlling disruptive behavior. The Journal of Special Education16(1), 101-110.

Comprehensive school‐based behavioral assessment of the effects of methylphenidate

Individualized assessments of the effects of three doses of methylphenidate (MPH) were conducted for 2 students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder within each child’s classroom using behavioral, academic, and social measures.

Gulley, V., & Northup, J. (1997). Comprehensive school‐based behavioral assessment of the effects of methylphenidate. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis30(4), 627-638.

Research issues and needs regarding teacher use of classroom management strategies

In this paper research is identified that supports the use of specific classroom management strategies in classrooms for children with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). Information is presented that indicates that these strategies may not be implemented or may not be effectively implemented by the teachers of students with EBD.

Gunter, P. L., & Denny, R. K. (1996). Research issues and needs regarding teacher use of classroom management strategies. Behavioral Disorders22(1), 15-20.

Noncontingent presentation of attention and alternative stimuli in the treatment of attention‐maintained destructive behavior

This paper examined the extent to which alternative stimuli that have been identified through a choice assessment would substitute for attention (the functional analysis–based reinforcer) in a noncontingent reinforcement procedure. 

Hanley, G. P., Piazza, C. C., & Fisher, W. W. (1997). Noncontingent presentation of attention and alternative stimuli in the treatment of attention‐maintained destructive behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis30(2), 229-237.

Treatment classification and selection based on behavioral function

In this chapter, we will review several treatment models and their limitations, which are best understood following a brief discussion of the learned (functional) characteristics of behavior disorders.

Iwata, B. A., Vollmer, T. R., Zarcone, J. R., & Rodgers, T. A. (1993). Treatment classification and selection based on behavioral function. In Behavior analysis and treatment (pp. 101-125). Springer, Boston, MA.

Single-case research designs: Methods for clinical and applied settings

Now thoroughly updated in its second edition, acclaimed author Alan Kazdin's Single-Case Research Designs provides a notable contrast to the quantitative methodology approach that pervades the biological and social sciences.

Kazdin, A. E. (2011). Single-case research designs: Methods for clinical and applied settings. Oxford University Press.

Promoting academic performance in inattentive children: The relative efficacy of school-home notes with and without response cost

The present study examined the effectiveness of two different school-home notes for increasing academic productivity and appropriate classroom behavior in five inattentive children.

Kelley, M. L., & McCain, A. P. (1995). Promoting academic performance in inattentive children: The relative efficacy of school-home notes with and without response cost. Behavior Modification19(3), 357-375.

Assessment-based antecedent interventions used in natural settings to reduce challenging behavior: An analysis of the literature

The current paper reviews empirical research describing assessment-based antecedent interventions implemented in natural settings. Descriptive information is provided along a number  of dimensions pertaining to participant characteristics, assessment utilized, and intervention attributes

Kern, L., Choutka, C. M., & Sokol, N. G. (2002). Assessment-based antecedent interventions used in natural settings to reduce challenging behavior: An analysis of the literature. Education & Treatment of Children25(1), 113.

Improving the classroom behavior of students with emotional and behavioral disorders using individualized curricular modifications

In this article, we describe analyses of assessment-based curricular modifications designed to improve the classroom behavior of elementary school students with emotional and behavioral disorders.

Kern, L., Delaney, B., Clarke, S., Dunlap, G., & Childs, K. (2001). Improving the classroom behavior of students with emotional and behavioral disorders using individualized curricular modifications. Journal of Emotional and behavioral Disorders9(4), 239-247.

Behavior consultation: A five-year evaluation of consultant and client outcomes.

Examined the effects of training in behavioral consultation (BEC) on school psychology graduate students and on client outcomes. 169 children (aged 3–11 yrs), 29 teachers/consultees, and 26 consultants participated.

Kratochwill, T. R., Elliott, S. N., & Busse, R. T. (1995). Behavior consultation: A five-year evaluation of consultant and client outcomes. School Psychology Quarterly10(2), 87.

The conceptual elements of strong interventions in school settings.

Presents a conceptual model of strong school-based interventions. It is suggested that all of these concepts must be practically utilized if strong interventions are to be applied to school problems. Suggestions and implications for school psychology practitioners are discussed.

Lentz Jr, F. E., Allen, S. J., & Ehrhardt, K. E. (1996). The conceptual elements of strong interventions in school settings. School Psychology Quarterly11(2), 118.

Reductive procedures

This chapter will review the issues and effects of externally managed behavioral procedures applied to the reduction of undesirable behavior of regular or mildly handicapped children in school settings. 

Lentz, F. E. (1988). Reductive procedures. In Handbook of behavior therapy in education (pp. 439-468). Springer, Boston, MA.

Prevalence of the extinction burst and its attenuation during treatment

The authors attempted to determine the prevalence of the extinction burst in applied research and its possible attenuation with other operant procedures. 

Lerman, D. C., & Iwata, B. A. (1995). Prevalence of the extinction burst and its attenuation during treatment. Journal of applied behavior analysis28(1), 93-94.

The Characteristics and Experiences of Youth in Special Education. Findings from the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2012. Volume 2: Comparisons across Disability Groups

The United States has committed to improving the lives of students with disabilities for over 40 years. Since the advent of Federal Law PL 94-142 in 1975 that mandated a free and appropriate education for all students regardless of ability and six reauthorizations of legislation, the federal government has emphasized the need to prepare students with disabilities for post-secondary education, careers, and independent living. The federal investment in funding special education services exceeds $15 Billion annually. It is reasonable to ask, are student with disabilities substantially benefiting from these efforts? The National Longitudinal Transition Study (NLTS) provides the most recent data on youth with disabilities and efforts to address their needs. The study used surveys in 2012 and 2013 on a nationally representative set of nearly 13,000 students. The student included were mostly those with an individualized education program (IEP) and expected to receive special education services. The data reveal participation in key transition activities by youth with an IEP and their parents have declined, although they are just as likely to have gone to an IEP meeting. The findings from this report suggest a closer examination of current practices is warranted with a focus on achieving the stated outcomes the laws were designed to remedy.

Lipscomb, S., Hamison, J., Liu Albert, Y., Burghardt, J., Johnson, D. R., & Thurlow, M. (2018). Preparing for Life after High School: The Characteristics and Experiences of Youth in Special Education. Findings from the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2012. Volume 2: Comparisons across Disability Groups. Full Report. NCEE 2017-4018. National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance.

Antecedent control: Innovative approaches to behavioral support

This book provides effective techniques for pinpointing the causes of challenging behaviors, identifying alternate approached, and adapting instructional routines. 

Luiselli, J. K., & Cameron, M. J. (Eds.). (1998). Antecedent control: Innovative approaches to behavioral support. Paul H Brookes Publishing Company.

Factors affecting selection of behavioral interventions.

This paper reviews important factors to consider when designing behavioral interventions based on the operant function of the behavior disorder. Considerations for intervention selection for the four major operant functions of behavior disorders (attention, tangibles, escape, and automatic reinforcement) are presented in the context of matching theory. 

Mace, F. C., & Roberts, M. L. (1993). Factors affecting selection of behavioral interventions.

Problem solving and intervention design: Guidelines for the evaluation of technical adequacy.

In this article, guidelines for evaluating the technical adequacy of that process are described. The guidelines highlight the interdependencies among assessment functions, subsumed by the goal of helping, and the role of structural factors (e.g., collaboration) in shaping the meaningfulness, appropriateness, and usefulness of the assessment-intervention process.

Macmann, G. M., Barnett, D. W., Allen, S. J., Bramlett, R. K., Hall, J. D., & Ehrhardt, K. E. (1996). Problem solving and intervention design: Guidelines for the evaluation of technical adequacy. School Psychology Quarterly11(2), 137.

A behavioral analysis of effective teaching.

Characterizes classroom instruction (CRI) from a behavior analytic perspective. It is argued that effective teaching strategies also serve managerial functions through the development of stimulus control and the management of behavioral choice. 

Martens, B. K., & Kelly, S. Q. (1993). A behavioral analysis of effective teaching. School Psychology Quarterly8(1), 10.

Identifying effective treatments from a brief experimental analysis: Using single-case design elements to aid decision making.

This paper discusses the benefits of using brief experimental analyses to aid in treatment selection, identifies the forms of treatment that are most appropriate for this type of analysis, and describes key design elements for comparing 2 or more treatments efficiently. 

Martens, B. K., Eckert, T. L., Bradley, T. A., & Ardoin, S. P. (1999). Identifying effective treatments from a brief experimental analysis: Using single-case design elements to aid decision making. School Psychology Quarterly14(2), 163.

A note to teacher: Improving student behavior through goal setting and feedback.

The authors examined the effects of goal setting and feedback applied to teacher behavior as a means of producing desired changes in students' behavior during consultation. 

Martens, B. K., Hiralall, A. S., & Bradley, T. A. (1997). A note to teacher: Improving student behavior through goal setting and feedback. School Psychology Quarterly12(1), 33.

Preventing antisocial behavior in the schools

Mayer, G. R. (1995). Preventing antisocial behavior in the schools. Journal of applied behavior analysis28(4), 467-478.

Analysis of the reinforcement and extinction components in DRO contingencies with self‐injury

In this study, we conducted an analysis of the reinforcement and extinction components of DRO while treating the self-injury of 3 women with developmental disabilities.

Mazaleski, J. L., Iwata, B. A., Vollmer, T. R., Zarcone, J. R., & Smith, R. G. (1993). Analysis of the reinforcement and extinction components in DRO contingencies with self‐injury. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis26(2), 143-156.

Descriptive and experimental analysis of child-caregiver interactions that promote development of young children exposed prenatally to drugs and alcohol

This paper presents two studies of factors affecting developmental outcomes of young children exposed prenatally to drugs and alcohol.

McConnell, S. R., Rush, K. L., McEvoy, M. A., Carta, J., Atwater, J., & Williams, R. (2002). Descriptive and experimental analysis of child-caregiver interactions that promote development of young children exposed prenatally to drugs and alcohol. Journal of Behavioral Education11(3), 131-161.

Developing fluency and endurance in a child diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

We examined the effect of a teaching method on skill fluency and on-task endurance of a 9-year-old boy who had been diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

McDowell, C., & Keenan, M. (2001). Developing fluency and endurance in a child diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis34(3), 345-348.

The importance of Herrnstein's mathematical statement of the law of effect for behavior therapy.

Suggests that R. Herrnstein's (1970) mathematical statement of the law of effect improves on Skinner's view of reinforcement by asserting (a) that response rate varies hyperbolically with reinforcement rate and (b) that responding is governed not only by reinforcement obtained for responding but also by reinforcement obtained from all other concurrent sources. 

McDowell, J. J. (1982). The importance of Herrnstein's mathematical statement of the law of effect for behavior therapy. American Psychologist37(7), 771.

Competence in aspects of behavioral treatment and consultation: Implications for service delivery and graduate training

This study examined the extent to which competence in applying behavioral procedures (timeout from positive reinforcement) was sufficient to establish competence in teaching others to apply the same procedures.

McGimsey, J. F., Greene, B. F., & Lutzker, J. R. (1995). Competence in aspects of behavioral treatment and consultation: Implications for service delivery and graduate training. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis28(3), 301-315.

Effective teaching: A review of instructional and environmental variables.

this chapter is based on the following premise: that variables operative in the classroom environment, such as the specific behaviors of the teacher and the manner in which the classroom is arranged (e.g., seating arrangement, noise level), influence student behavior and student learning

McKee, W. T., & Witt, J. C. (1990). Effective teaching: A review of instructional and environmental variables.

A guide to standardized testing: The nature of assessment

The goal of this guide is to provide useful information about standardized testing, or assessment, for practitioners and non-practitioners who care about public schools. It includes the nature of assessment, types of assessments and tests, and definitions.

Mitchell, R. (2006). A guide to standardized testing: The nature of assessment. Center for Public Education. 

The relationship between instructional variables and problem behavior: A review

The purpose of this paper is to review studies that have used instructional variables as nonaversive interventionsfor problem behaviors.

Munk, D. D., & Repp, A. C. (1994). The relationship between instructional variables and problem behavior: A review. Exceptional children60(5), 390-401.

Interventions for Chronic Behavior Problems

This paper is designed to help educators understand research findings on promising interventions for students with a history of behavior problems. It reviews programs for preventing such problems from recurring among children and adolescents with chronic antisocial behavior.

National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities (1999). Interventions for Chronic Behavior Problems. Washington, DC: Author. 

Functional outcome analysis: Do the benefits of consultation and prereferral intervention justify the costs?

This synthesis is described under the rubric of functional outcome analysis (FOA) and is organized around an examination of classroom resources. Various methods of assessing intervention costs and benefits, as well as their distribution, are described. 

Noell, G. H., & Gresham, F. M. (1993). Functional outcome analysis: Do the benefits of consultation and prereferral intervention justify the costs?. School Psychology Quarterly8(3), 200.

Functional assessment of the effects of escape and attention on students' compliance during instruction.

This study examined three strategies for assessing compliance in students (aged 5 yrs) whose speech and language development were delayed.

Noell, G. H., VanDerHeyden, A. M., Gatti, S. L., & Whitmarsh, E. L. (2001). Functional assessment of the effects of escape and attention on students' compliance during instruction. School Psychology Quarterly16(3), 253.

Sequencing instructional tasks: A comparison of contingent and noncontingent interspersal of preferred academic tasks

This study compared two strategies for increasing accurate responding on a low-preference academic task by interspersing presentations of a preferred academic task.

Noell, G. H., Whitmarsh, E. L., VanDerHeyden, A. M., Gatti, S. L., & Slider, N. J. (2003). Sequencing instructional tasks: A comparison of contingent and noncontingent interspersal of preferred academic tasks. Behavior modification27(2), 191-216.

Some Contributions of Functional Analysis to the Assessment of Behaviors Associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and the Effects of Stimulant Medication.

The usefulness of functional analysis procedures for the assessment and treatment of behaviors associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder has been the subject of a number of recent investigations. This article provides a selected review of recent studies and examines potential implications for practice.

Northup, J., & Gulley, V. (2001). Some Contributions of Functional Analysis to the Assessment of Behaviors Associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and the Effects of Stimulant Medication. School Psychology Review30(2).

Children placed at risk for learning and behavioral difficulties: Implementing a school-wide system of early identification and intervention

This article describes a school-wide system of early identification and intervention for children placed at risk for school success and discusses how schools might implement the recommendations offered in the literature.

O'Shaughnessy, T. E., Lane, K. L., Gresham, F. M., & Beebe-Frankenberger, M. E. (2003). Children placed at risk for learning and behavioral difficulties: Implementing a school-wide system of early identification and intervention. Remedial and Special Education24(1), 27-35.

Structuring Your Classroom For Academic Success

This is our most widely adopted classroom management book. It provides an overview of what teaching is all about—focusing on the important management skills every teacher needs. The authors stress that these procedures will help prevent problem behaviors, keep students on task, and make the best use of everyone's time and energy.

Paine, S. C. (1983). Structuring your classroom for academic success. Research PressPub.

Reciprocal Teaching of Comprehension Fostering and Comprehension Monitoring Activities

Two instructional studies directed at the comprehension-fostering and comprehension-monitoringactivitiesof seventhgrade poor comprehendersare reported

Palinscar, A. S., & Brown, A. L. (1984). Reciprocal teaching of comprehension-fostering and comprehension-monitoring activities. Cognition and instruction1(2), 117-175.

Incorporating End-of-Course Exam Timing Into Educational Performance Evaluations

There is increased interest in extending the test-based evaluation framework in K-12 education to achievement in high school. High school achievement is typically measured by performance on end-of-course exams (EOCs), which test course-specific standards in subjects including algebra, biology, English, geometry, and history, among others. Recent research indicates that when students take particular courses can have important consequences for achievement and subsequent outcomes. The contribution of the present study is to develop an approach for modeling EOC test performance regarding the timing of course.

Parsons, E., Koedel, C., Podgursky, M., Ehlert, M., & Xiang, P. B. (2015). Incorporating end-of-course exam timing into educational performance evaluations. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 8(1), 130-147.

Making behavioral technology transferable

In 1986, the senior author called attention to the possibility of transferring behavioral technologies to the larger culture for the benefit of that culture. The present paper is an attempt to supplement that presentation with a set of proposals that were at best implicit and were perhaps missing entirely from the earlier effort.

Pennypacker, H. S., & Hench, L. L. (1997). Making behavioral technology transferable. The Behavior Analyst20(2), 97-108.

Organizational behavior management in human service settings.

Presents a summary of the research that resulted in the development of organizational behavior management (OBM) as a specialty area as well as its procedural technology. The relationship of OBM to other supervisory and management approaches that are common in the human services is described. 

Reid, D. H., & Parsons, M. B. (2000). Organizational behavior management in human service settings.

Effectiveness of a multi-component treatment for improving mathematics fluency.

An alternating treatments design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational program that combined timings (via chess clocks), peer tutoring (i.e., peer-delivered immediate feedback), positive-practice overcorrection, and performance feedback on mathematics fluency (i.e., speed of accurate responding) in four elementary students with mathematics skills deficits.

Rhymer, K. N., Dittmer, K. I., Skinner, C. H., & Jackson, B. (2000). Effectiveness of a multi-component treatment for improving mathematics fluency. School Psychology Quarterly15(1), 40.

toward a methodology of withdrawal design for the assessment

The present paper discusses three design options potentially useful for the investigation of response maintenance. These include: (a) the sequential-withdrawal, (b) the partial-withdrawal, and (c) the partial-sequential withdrawal designs. Each design is illustrated and potential limitations are discussed.

Rusch, F. R., & Kazdin, A. E. (1981). Toward a methodology of withdrawal designs for the assessment of response maintenance. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis14(2), 131-140.

The modification and maintenance of time spent attending using social reinforcement, token reinforcement and response cost in an applied restaurant setting

The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate a series of program variables used to modify the time a subject spent attending in an experimental restaurant setting.

Rusch, F. R., Connis, R. T., & Sowers, J. A. (1978). The modification and maintenance of time spent attending using social reinforcement, token reinforcement and response cost in an applied restaurant setting. Journal of Special Education Technology2(1), 18-26.

Increasing academic responding of handicapped preschool children during group instruction

In an experimental assessment of a choral responding procedure for increasing children's response to teacher commands, decreased levels of off-task behavior, as well as increased levels of correct responding, resulted from the procedures for three handicapped preschool children during large group instruction.

Sainato, D. M., Strain, P. S., & Lyon, S. R. (1987). Increasing academic responding of handicapped preschool children during group instruction. Journal of the Division for Early Childhood12(1), 23-30.

Effects of self-evaluation on the independent work skills of preschool children with disabilities

This study examined the effects of a self-evaluation treatment package on the independent work skills of preschool children with disabilities. 

Sainato, D. M., Strain, P. S., Lefebvre, D., & Rapp, N. (1990). Effects of self-evaluation on the independent work skills of preschool children with disabilities. Exceptional Children56(6), 540-549.

Use of descriptive and experimental analyses to identify the functional properties of aberrant behavior in school settings

The authors conducted descriptive and experimental analyses of aberrant behavior in school settings with 2 children with autism, using teachers as assessors. Experimental functional analyses carried out by the investigators were followed by training teachers to conduct a descriptive analysis and a classroom experimental analysis. 

Sasso, G. M., Reimers, T. M., Cooper, L. J., Wacker, D., Berg, W., Steege, M., ... & Allaire, A. (1992). Use of descriptive and experimental analyses to identify the functional properties of aberrant behavior in school settings. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis25(4), 809-821.

The participant effects of private school vouchers across the globe: A meta-analytic and systematic review

Our focus throughout this study will be to see what impact, if any, school voucher programs, in the United States and throughout the world, have had on student test scores. If the findings are mixed, we shall try to determine unique patterns that are driven either by geography or relevant program design components. We will also compare overall outcomes for reading and math scores for programs within the US vs. outside the US and publically funded vs. privately funded programs. This can be helpful for policymakers designing future private school voucher programs. Reading assessments will only be included if they were in English, regardless of the language of the country in which they were administered. We do this to ensure commonality in the international reading assessments and also because the international voucher evaluations in the meta-analysis come from developing countries where English language skills are highly valued.

Shakeel, M., Anderson, K., & Wolf, P. (2016). The participant effects of private school vouchers across the globe: A meta-analytic and systematic review.

Academic skills problems: Direct assessment and intervention

This popular practitioner guide and text presents an effective, problem-solving-based approach to evaluating and remediating academic skills problems. The author provides practical strategies for working with students across all grade levels (K–12) who are struggling with reading, spelling, written language, or math. 

Shapiro, E. S. (2011). Academic skills problems: Direct assessment and intervention. Guilford Press.

Behavioral consultation with parents and teachers: Delivering treatment for socially withdrawn children at home and school.

Used a multiple baseline design to evaluate teacher-only consultation (TOC) and conjoint behavioral consultation (CBC) in their ability to produce cross-setting behavioral change in the social initiations (SIs) of 4 withdrawn children (aged 9–12 yrs). Direct observation, rating scale, and self-report data were collected from various sources across settings. 

Sheridan, S. M., Kratochwill, T. R., & Elliott, S. N. (1990). Behavioral consultation with parents and teachers: Delivering treatment for socially withdrawn children at home and school. School Psychology Review.

Noncategorical special education services with students with severe achievement deficits

The purpose of this chapter is to understand the reasons why categorical assessment and identification for students with severe achievement needs is indefensible. Then, to provide a viable alternative to expedite the assessment and decisionmaking process of educators when they are confronted with students with severe achievement needs

Shinn, M., Good, R., & Parker, C. (1998). Noncategorical special education services with students with severe achievement deficits. Functional and noncategorical identification and intervention in special education, 65-83.

Does functional communication training compete with ongoing contingencies of reinforcement? An analysis during response acquisition and maintenance

The authors examined the effectiveness of functional communication training (FCT) in reducing self-injurious behavior (SIB) and in shaping an alternative (communicative) response while SIB continued to be reinforced. 

Shirley, M. J., Iwata, B. A., Kahng, S., Mazaleski, J. L., & Lerman, D. C. (1997). Does functional communication training compete with ongoing contingencies of reinforcement? An analysis during response acquisition and maintenance. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis30(1), 93-104.

An analysis of reinforcer substitutability using object manipulation and self‐injury as competing responses

The concept of reinforcer substitutability proposes a continuum of interactions among reinforcers in a given situation. At one end of this continuum, reinforcers are substitutable, with one reinforcer being readily traded for another. The authors conducted an analysis of reinforcers that were substitutable with those produced by self-injurious behavior (SIB).

Shore, B. A., Iwata, B. A., DeLeon, I. G., Kahng, S., & Smith, R. G. (1997). An analysis of reinforcer substitutability using object manipulation and self‐injury as competing responses. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis30(1), 21-41.

Tactics of Scientific Research: Evaluating Experimental Data in Psychology.

Discussing the major themes of replication, variability, and experimental design, Sidman describes the step-by-step planning of experiments, the need for constant attention to trends of incoming data, and the alteration of plan, method, or design that those trends sometimes make necessary

Sidman, M. (1960). Tactics of Scientific Research: Evaluating Experimental Data in Psychology.  Boston: Authors Cooperative. 

Increasing opportunities for requesting in classrooms serving children with developmental disabilities

The authors evaluated an intervention package for increasing requesting opportunities in special education classrooms. This study demonstrated an effective strategy for helping teachers incorporate opportunities for functional communication into the natural environment.

Sigafoos, J., Kerr, M., Roberts, D., & Couzens, D. (1994). Increasing opportunities for requesting in classrooms serving children with developmental disabilities. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders24(5), 631-645.

Increasing learning rates by increasing student response rates: A summary of research.

This paper describes several procedures that have been shown to improve learning rates without increasing time allocated for instruction during both teacher-led instruction and independent seat-work. In the description of interventions, they emphasize the learning mechanisms that may be operating to improve student achievement.

Skinner, C. H., Fletcher, P. A., & Henington, C. (1996). Increasing learning rates by increasing student response rates: A summary of research. School Psychology Quarterly11(4), 313.

Increasing on‐task behavior during mathematics independent seat‐work in students with emotional disturbance by interspersing additional brief problems

Alternating treatments designs were used to compare on-task levels in 4 students diagnosed as emotionally disturbed while working on control and experimental independent seat-work mathematics assignments. Control and experimental assignments were similar except experimental assignments contained additional briefer mathematics problems interspersed following every third problem. 

Skinner, C. H., Hurst, K. L., Teeple, D. F., & Meadows, S. O. (2002). Increasing on‐task behavior during mathematics independent seat‐work in students with emotional disturbance by interspersing additional brief problems. Psychology in the Schools39(6), 647-659.

Classification in context: An alternative approach to identifying early reading disability.

This study evaluated an alternative method of identifying early reading difficulty. L. S. Fuchs and D. Fuchs (1998) proposed that academic problems could be indexed by a dual discrepancy on level and slope of performance, relative to classmates, on curriculum-based measurement tasks. 

Speece, D. L., & Case, L. P. (2001). Classification in context: An alternative approach to identifying early reading disability. Journal of Educational Psychology93(4), 735.

The effects of direct training and treatment integrity on treatment outcomes in school consultation

This study compared indirect training and direct training methods as a means of impacting levels of treatment integrity.  Direct training methods produced better outcomes.

Sterling-Turner, H. E., Watson, T. S., & Moore, J. W. (2002). The effects of direct training and treatment integrity on treatment outcomes in school consultation. School Psychology Quarterly, 17(1). 

Empirically supported interventions and school psychology: Rationale and methodological issues—Part I.

In Part 1 of this 2-part article, the authors present historical, contextual, and methodological perspectives on the use of empirically supported interventions in school and community settings. 

Stoiber, K. C., & Kratochwill, T. R. (2000). Empirically supported interventions and school psychology: Rationale and methodological issues—Part I. School Psychology Quarterly15(1), 75.

Exploring the relationship between increased opportunities to respond to academic requests and the academic and behavioral outcomes of students with EBD: A review.

The purpose of this article is to review the literature and examine the effect of increased opportunities to respond to academic requests (OTR) on academic and behavioral outcomes of students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD).

Sutherland, K. S., & Wehby, J. H. (2001). Exploring the relationship between increased opportunities to respond to academic requests and the academic and behavioral outcomes of students with EBD: A review. Remedial and Special Education22(2), 113-121.

Generating hypotheses about the function of student problem behavior by observing teacher behavior

We examined whether, as predicted by research on child effects, we could generate hypotheses about the function of student problem behavior by observing the amount of attention teachers provided to students.

Taylor, J. C., & Romanczyk, R. G. (1994). Generating hypotheses about the function of student problem behavior by observing teacher behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis27(2), 251-265.

Disability determination in problem-solving systems: Conceptual foundations and critical components

This chapter presents four sets of interrelated discussions. The rationale for and critical components underlying a problem-solving system; The concept of educational disability is clarified; Current and potential alternate processes of conferring educational disability status are considered; The implications of implementing a functional and noncategorical system are examined in relation to federal legal requirements.

Tilly, W. D., Reschly, D. J., & Grimes, J. (1999). Disability determination in problem solving systems: Conceptual foundations and critical components. Special education in transition: Functional assessment and noncategorical programming, 221-251.

The Measurement of Behavior: Behavior Modification

practitioners of behavior management & students who are just learning the basics of applied behavior analysis will find this new edition packed with useful information from the original version

Van Houten, R., & Hall, R. V. (2001). The measurement of behavior: Behavior modification. Pro-ed.

Descriptive Assessment Method to Reduce Overall Disruptive Behavior in a Preschool Classroom.

The goal of this study was to develop a brief assessment that could be conducted in the natural setting to identify naturally occurring, high-frequency subsequent events that may serve as maintaining consequences for disruptive behavior using the entire class as the unit of analysis. Procedures were conducted in two early childhood classrooms during regularly scheduled classroom activities.

VanDerHeyden, A. M., Witt, J. C., & Gatti, S. (2001). Descriptive Assessment Method to Reduce Overall Disruptive Behavior in a Preschool Classroom. School Psychology Review30(4).

Development and validation of a process for screening referrals to special education

This article describes efforts to examine the validity of a screening process that provides objective data for multidisciplinary team meetings where consideration is being given to teacher referral of a student for assessment and possible placement in special education. 

VanDerHeyden, A. M., Witt, J. C., & Naquin, G. (2003). Development and validation of a process for screening referrals to special education. School Psychology Review32(2), 204-227.

Cognitive profiles of difficult-to-remediate and readily remediated poor readers: Early intervention as a vehicle for distinguishing between cognitive and experiential deficits as basic causes of specific reading disability.

Reading impaired first graders were given daily tutoring as a "first cut" diagnostic to aid in distinguishing between reading difficulties caused by basic cognitive deficits and those caused by experiential deficits. Reading achievement in most of these children was found to be within or above the average range after one semester of remediation. 

Vellutino, F. R., Scanlon, D. M., Sipay, E. R., Small, S. G., Pratt, A., Chen, R., & Denckla, M. B. (1996). Cognitive profiles of difficult-to-remediate and readily remediated poor readers: Early intervention as a vehicle for distinguishing between cognitive and experiential deficits as basic causes of specific reading disability. Journal of Educational Psychology88(4), 601.

Use of single-case designs to evaluate manipulable influences on school performance.

Provides 2 hypothetical case examples that illustrate how single-case designs (alternating treatments, multiple baseline, and reversal) can be used to evaluate manipulable influences on school performance. In each case, an intervention plan is proposed for a student, and the success of the intervention is evaluated within a single-case design.

Wacker, D. P., Steege, M., & Berg, W. K. (1988). Use of single-case designs to evaluate manipulable influences on school performance. School Psychology Review.

First step to success: Intervening at the point of school entry to prevent antisocial behavior patterns

This article provides a description of the First Step to Success early intervention program for preventing development of antisocial behavior patterns among young, at-risk children. 

Walker, H. M., Severson, H. H., Feil, E. G., Stiller, B., & Golly, A. (1998). First step to success: Intervening at the point of school entry to prevent antisocial behavior patterns. Psychology in the Schools35(3), 259-269.

Systematic screening for behavior disorders (SSBD)

This kit presents the Systematic Screening for Behavior Disorders (SSBD) as a tool to identify behavior disorders in elementary-aged students. The kit contains a user's guide and administration manual, a technical manual reporting psychometric properties of the SSBD, an observer training manual, and multiple copies of the screening instruments.

Walker, H. M., Severson, H., & Feil, E. G. (1990). Systematic screening for behavior disorders (SSBD). Longmont, CO: Sopris West.

A new era: Revitalizing special education for children and their families

This article presents some recommendations for employment and career-building by addressing two major vital to transition: competitive employment outcomes and post­secondary education. 

Wehman, P. (2002). A new era: Revitalizing special education for children and their families. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities17(4), 194-197.

An analysis of treatment integrity in school-based behavioral consultation

The relationships among independent variables and three measures of treatment integrity were evaluated.

Wickstrom, K. F., Jones, K. M., LaFleur, L. H., & Witt, J. C. (1998). An analysis of treatment integrity in school-based behavioral consultation. School Psychology Quarterly13(2), 141.

Assessing the acceptability of behavioral interventions used in classrooms

This study examined components of teacher judgements that an intervention is either acceptable or unacceptable. A total of 180 preservice and student teachers were asked to evaluate the acceptability of six different interventions.

Witt, J. C., & Martens, B. K. (1983). Assessing the acceptability of behavioral interventions used in classrooms. Psychology in the Schools20(4), 510-517.

What's behavioral about behavioral consultation

This article provides a brief review and a critique of behavioral consultation. Specifically, the procedures utilized within BC for assessment of the problem, development of an intervention, implementation of the intervention, and plan evaluation are overly reliant on indirect methods of behavior assessment and behavior change.

Witt, J. C., Gresham, F. M., & Noell, G. H. (1996). What's behavioral about behavioral consultation. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation7(4), 327-344.

Teacher use of interventions in general education settings: Measurement and analysis of the independent variable

This study examined the integrity with which 4 general education teachers implemented an intervention designed to improve the academic performance of elementary school students. Treatment integrity was measured daily using permanent products.

Witt, J. C., Noell, G. H., Lafleur, L. H., & Mortenson, B. P. (1997). Teacher use of interventions in general education settings: Measurement and analysis of the independent variable. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis30(4), 693-696.

Including Children with Special Needs in Early Childhood Programs. Research Monograph of the National Association for the Education of Young Children, Volume 6.

This research monograph offers early childhood educators a foundational resource of information needed to develop inclusion practices.

Wolery, M., & Wilbert, J. S. (1994). Including Children with Special Needs in Early Childhood Programs. Research Monograph of the National Association for the Education of Young Children, Volume 6. National Association for the Education of Young Children, 1509 16th Street, NW, Washington, DC 20036 (Order No. 145, $8 each; 5-49 copies, 10% discount; 50-99 copies, 20% discount; over 100 copies, 25% discount; orders under $20 must be prepaid)..

Two Models of Learning and Achievement: An Explanation for the Achievement Gap?

A 2015 paper by Stuart Yeh offers evidence on how to improve the performance of all students and close the achievement gap between students of different socioeconomic statuses and races. Yeh hypothesizes that the conventional school system is structured in a way that reduces student motivation to succeed. Students become disengaged after experiencing repeated failure, resulting in depressed achievement and grades. This cycle continues to feed on itself as low achievement and poor grades further decrease motivation, engagement, and achievement. Yeh’s research suggests that two critical factors may account for the phenomenon of substandard student achievement: lack of a system for individualizing task difficulty and insufficient rapid performance feedback. These factors appear to be significantly more powerful than sociocultural circumstances (socioeconomic status or race), lack of accountability, lack of choice and competition, and low teacher quality. 

Yeh, S. S. (2015). Two models of learning and achievement: An explanation for the achievement gap? Teachers College Record117(12), 1–48.

Reliability Analysis of The Motivation Assessment Scale

In this study, the reliability of the MAS was reexamined with two independent groups of developmentally disabled individuals who exhibited SIB (N = 55).

Zarcone, J. R., Rodgers, T. A., Iwata, B. A., Rourke, D. A., & Dorsey, M. F. (1991). Reliability analysis of the Motivation Assessment Scale: A failure to replicate. Research in Developmental Disabilities12(4), 349-360.

End-of-Course Exams

This report provides information on states that require students enrolled in courses that have an end-of-course (EOC) exam to take the EOC

Zinth, J. D. (2012). End-of-Course Exams. Education Commission of the States (NJ3).

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