The present article discusses a theory of tolerance and seeks to identify the critical problems associated with the position taken in the NAS report and subsequent reform initiatives. Specifically, it is argued that brute force attempts to absorb, current special education functions into regular classrooms will necessarily fail.
Gerber, M. M. (1988). Tolerance and technology of instruction: Implications for special education reform. Exceptional Children, 54(4), 309-314.
The purpose of this paper is to describe methodological issues related to the independent variable in early intervention research. Three standards related to the independent variable are proposed:
LeLAURIN, K. A. T. H. R. Y. N., & Wolery, M. (1992). Research standards in early intervention: Defining, describing, and measuring the independent variable. Journal of Early Intervention, 16(3), 275-287.
The United States Supreme Court's recent inaugural decision involving the scope of the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975, 1 Board of Education v. Rowley, 2 wherein the Court ruled that the Westchester County public school district is not required to provide a deaf student with a sign language interpreter in the classroom, represents an extraordinary example of judicial usurpation of the legislative function.
Powell Jr, L. F. (1981). Board of Education of the Hendrick Hudson Central School District, Westchester County v. Rowley.
This book brings together 70 top researchers and scholars in the field to address the major foundational, assessment, characteristics, intervention, and methodological issues facing the field of emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) of children and adolescents
Rutherford, R. B., Quinn, M. M., & Mathur, S. R. (Eds.). (2004). Handbook of research in emotional and behavioral disorders. New York: Guilford Press.
Three formative assessment techniques for the math classroom are discussed: observation and questioning, diagnostic interviews and problem-solving-based investigations.
Sammon, K. B., & Kobett, B. (1992). Linking instruction and assessment in the mathematics classroom. The Arithmetic Teacher, 39(6), 11.
This study examined the treatment utility of brief experimental analysis for selecting skill-based oral reading interventions that targeted acquisition and fluency.
VanAuken, T. L., Chafouleas, S. M., Bradley, T. A., & Martens, B. K. (2002). Using brief experimental analysis to select oral reading interventions: An investigation of treatment utility. Journal of Behavioral Education, 11(3), 163-179.
This study was guided by a reduced version of the Self-System Process Model developed by Connell. This paper report the optimal and risk thresholds for the Student Performance and Commitment Index (SPCI) and engagement, and then data on how much engagement matters for later success in school are presented.
Klem, A. M., & Connell, J. P. (2004). Relationships matter: Linking teacher support to student engagement and achievement. Journal of school health, 74(7), 262-273.
Two retarded boys exhibited abnormally low rates of smiling. In Exp. I, the frequency of a boy's smiling was first increased with candy reinforcement, but the frequency of the response did not decrease when candy reinforcement was terminated.
This study examines this question by evaluating the effects of teacher turnover on student achievement under IMPACT, the unique performance-assessment and incentive system in the District of Columbia Public Schools (DCPS).
Adnot, M., Dee, T., Katz, V., & Wyckoff, J. (2017). Teacher turnover, teacher quality, and student achievement in DCPS. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 39(1), 54–76.
Grades are ubiquitous in public schools as a measure of student achievement; however, the author in this paper raises questions about the validy of grades as a measure of student achievement.
Allen, J. D. (2005). Grades as valid measures of academic achievement of classroom learning. The Clearing House: A Journal of Educational …. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.3200/TCHS.78.5.218-223
The main objective of the present review was to update the feedback literature review conducted by Balcazar, Hopkins, and Suarez in 1985. The current review identified 68 applications of feedback from 43 studies in applied organizational settings.
Alvero, A. M., Bucklin, B. R., & Austin, J. (2001). An objective review of the effectiveness and essential characteristics of performance feedback in organizational settings (1985-1998). Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 21(1), 3-29.
This article discuss about study that measures the effect of offering healthier public school lunches on end of year academic test scores for public school students in California. This study focus on school-specific differences in lunch quality over-time. The study shows increasing the nutritional quality of school meals appears to be promising, cost-effective way to improve student learning.
Anderson. M. L., Gallagher, J., Ritchie. E. R. (2017). How the Quality of School Lunch Affects Students' Academic Performance. Brookings Institution. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/blog/brown-center-chalkboard/2017/05/03/how-the-quality-of-school-lunch-affects-students-academic-performance/
Examined the effect of social skills intervention on the frequency of positive peer interaction (PI) in 4 moderately hearing-impaired preschool children (aged 5.5 yrs to 5.10 yrs).
Antia, S., & Kreimeyer, K. (1988). Maintenance of positive peer interaction in preschool hearing-impaired children. The Volta Review.
This book was designed as an assessment of standardized testing and its alternatives at the secondary school level.
Archbald, D. A., & Newmann, F. M. (1988). Beyond standardized testing: Assessing authentic academic achievement in the secondary school.
This article presents the results of longitudinal retrospective analyses on suspensions, achievement, and long-term enrollment status of students in a large, urban school district. Findings indicated that suspended students had substantially lower presuspension achievement than did students in the comparison group, gained considerably less academically throughout 3 years with suspensions, and had high drop-out rates.
Arcia, E. (2006). Achievement and enrollment status of suspended students: Outcomes in a large, multicultural school district. Education and Urban Society, 38(3), 359-369.
This article reviews the decision rules for curriculum based reading scores. It concluded the rules were most often based on expert opinion.
Ardoin, S. P., Christ, T. J., Morena, L. S., Cormier, D. C., & Klingbeil, D. A. (2013). A systematic review and summarization of the recommendations and research surrounding Curriculum-Based Measurement of oral reading fluency (CBM-R) decision rules. Journal of School Psychology, 51(1), 1-18.
This paper describe a comprehensive model for the application of behavior analysis in the school. The model includes descriptive assessment, functional analysis, functional behavioral assessment, schools, in-home, problematic behavior.
Asmus, J. M., Vollmer, T. R., & Borrero, J. C. (2002). Functional behavioral assessment: A school based model. Education & Treatment of Children, 25(1), 67.
A program of research related to school-based models for urban children's mental health is described, with a particular focus on improving access to services, promoting children's functioning, and providing for program sustainability.
Atkins, M. S., Graczyk, P. A., Frazier, S. L., & Abdul-Adil, J. (2003). Toward A New Model for Promoting Urban Children's Mental Health: Accessible, Effective, and Sustainable School-Based Mental Health Services. School Psychology Review, 32(4).
The authors describe three forms of functional assessment used in applied behavior analysis and explain three potential reasons why OBM has not yet adopted the use of such techniques.
Austin, J., Carr, J. E., & Agnew, J. L. (1999). The need for assessment of maintaining variables in OBM. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 19(2), 59-87.
In 1980, a national conference (Ysseldyke & Weinberg, 1981) acknowledged a growing crisis of morale and mission in the discipline of school psychology. As part of that conference, Baer and Bushell (1981) described the accomplishments of behavior-analytic approaches to public education.
Baer, D. M. (1988). The Future of Behavior Analysis in Educational Settings. In Handbook of Behavior Therapy in Education (pp. 823-828). Springer, Boston, MA.
This book is a practical text that provides the beginning researcher with a clear description of how behavior analysts conduct applied research and submit it for publication. In a sequence of ten logical steps, the text covers the elements of single-case research design and the practices involved in organizing, implementing, and evaluating research studies.
Bailey, J. S., & Burch, M. R. (2017). Research methods in applied behavior analysis. Routledge.
This study identified four predictative indicators of student performance in 6th grade predicts 60% of the students who will not graduate from high school.
Balfanz, R Preventing student disengagement and keeping students on the graduation path in urban middle-grades schools: Early identification and effective interventions This study identified four predictative indicators of student performance in 6th grade predicts 60% of the students who will not graduate from high school. 1045 Early indicators 897 897 897 51208
The authors describe minimal requirements for functional intervention-based assessment and suggest strategies for using these methods to analyze developmental delays and make special service eligibility decisions for preschool children (intervention-based multifactored evaluation or IBMFE).
Barnett, D. W., Bell, S. H., Gilkey, C. M., Lentz Jr, F. E., Graden, J. L., Stone, C. M., ... & Macmann, G. M. (1999). The promise of meaningful eligibility determination: Functional intervention-based multifactored preschool evaluation. The Journal of Special Education, 33(2), 112-124.
Describes the ways in which accountability methods were built into practicum experiences for specialist- and doctoral-level school psychology trainees at the University of Cincinnati.
Barnett, D. W., Daly III, E. J., Hampshire, E. M., Rovak Hines, N., Maples, K. A., Ostrom, J. K., & Van Buren, A. E. (1999). Meeting performance-based training demands: Accountability in an intervention-based practicum. School Psychology Quarterly, 14(4), 357.
This article evaluates a procedure‐based scoring system for a performance assessment (an observed paper towels investigation) and a notebook surrogate completed by fifth‐grade students varying in hands‐on science experience.
Baxter, G. P., Shavelson, R. J., Goldman, S. R., & Pine, J. (1992). Evaluation of procedure‐based scoring for hands‐on science assessment. Journal of Educational Measurement, 29(1), 1-17.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a sequence of three single-digit (1 digit 3 1 digit) multiplication problems on the latency to initiate multiple-digit (3 digit 3 3 digit) multiplication problems for 2 students in an alternative education school
Belfiore, P. J., Lee, D. L., Vargas, A. U., & Skinner, C. H. (1997). Effects of high‐preference single‐digit mathematics problem completion on multiple‐digit mathematics problem performance. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 30(2), 327-330.
This paper outline the rationale, critical dimensions, and techniques for using peer micronorms and discuss technical adequacy considerations.
Bell, S. H., & Barnett, D. W. (1999). Peer micronorms in the assessment of young children: Methodological review and examples. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 19(2), 112-122.
This paper is a research review which explores factors that can be controlled or influenced by teachers and that are known to affect student behavior, attitudes, and achievement. Pre-instructional factors include decisions about content, time allocation, pacing, grouping, and activity structures.
Berliner, D. C. (1984). The half-full glass: A review of research on teaching.
Criticisms leveled at the American education system are examined in this paper, which asserts that misinformation about Japanese education should not be used as a basis for educational reform in the United States.
Berliner, D. C. (1992). Educational Reform in an Era of Disinformation.
Assessing literature that uses either experimental (lottery) or student-level growth-based methods, this analysis infers the causal impact of attending a charter school on student performance.
Betts, J. R., & Tang, Y. E. (2019). The effect of charter schools on student achievement. School choice at the crossroads: Research perspectives, 67-89.
This article reports on a 4-year longitudinal study of the effects of Literacy Collaborative (LC), a schoolwide reform model that relies primarily on the oneon-one coaching of teachers as a lever for improving student literacy learning.
Biancarosa, G., Bryk, A. S., & Dexter, E. R. (2010). Assessing the value-added effects of literacy collaborative professional development on student learning. The elementary school journal, 111(1), 7-34.
This article traces the development of concepts, procedures, and findings associated with fluency and discusses their implications for instructional design and practice. It invites further controlled research and experimental analyses of phenomena that may be significant in the future evolution of educational technology and in the analysis of complex behavior.
Binder, C. (1996). Behavioral fluency: Evolution of a new paradigm. The behavior analyst, 19(2), 163-197.
This paper describes the role end of course exams can play in the standards based reform movement.
Bishop, J. H., Mane, F., Bishop, M., Moriarty, J., Murnane, R., & Steinberg, L. T,. (2001). The role of end-of-course exams and minimum competency exams in standards-based reforms. Brookings papers on education policy, 4, 267-345.
The generality of the mathematical principles of reinforcement (MPR) was tested with humans.
Bizo, L. A., Remington, B., D’Souza, L. S., Heighway, S. K., & Baston, C. (2002). Human variable ratio performance. Learning and motivation, 33(4), 411-432.
This NCES study explores public schools' demographic composition, in particular, the proportion of Black students enrolled in schools (also referred to "Black student density" in schools) and its relation to the Black-White achievement gap. This study, the first of it's kind, used the 2011 NAEP grade 8 mathematics assessment data. Among the results highlighted in the report, the study indicates that the achievement gap between Black and White students remains whether schools fall in the highest density category or the lowest density category.
Bohrnstedt, G., Kitmitto, S., Ogut, B., Sherman, D., and Chan, D. (2015). School Composition and the Black–White Achievement Gap (NCES 2015-018). U.S. Department of Education, Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch.
This research aim to find a strong connection between standards-based reform and student outcomes by studied the most recent NAEP data. Their findings believe that states should remain dedicated to standards-based reform. The Common Core is the most recent major policy initiative to advance the broader standards-based reform approach and states should continue their commitment to the Common Core’s full implementation and aligned assessments.
Boser, U., & Brown, C. (2016). Lessons from State Performance on NAEP: Why Some High-Poverty Students Score Better than Others. Center for American Progress.
The goal of this paper is to estimate the extent to which there is differential attrition based on teachers' value-added to student achievement.
Boyd, D., Grossman, P., Lankford, H., Loeb, S., & Wyckoff, J. (2008). Who leaves? Teacher attrition and student achievement. Working Paper No. 14022. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved from https://www.nber.org/papers/w14022
This paper examines New York City elementary school teachers’ decisions to stay in the same school, transfer to another school in the district, transfer to another district, or leave teaching in New York state during the first five years of their careers.
Boyd, D., Lankford, H., Loeb, S., & Wyckoff, J. (2005). Explaining the short careers of high-achieving teachers in schools with low-performing students. American Economic Review, 95(2), 166-171.
By estimating the effect of teacher attributes using a value-added model, the analyses in this paper predict that observable qualifications of teachers resulted in average improved achievement for students in the poorest decile of schools of .03 standard deviations.
Boyd, D., Lankford, H., Loeb, S., Rockoff, J., & Wyckoff, J. (2008). The narrowing gap in New York City teacher qualifications and its implications for student achievement in high‐poverty schools. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management: The Journal of the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management, 27(4), 793-818.
In this study, the note-taking skills of middle school students with LD were compared to peers with average and high achievement. The results indicate differences in the number and type of notes recorded between students with LD and their peers and differences in test performance of lecture content.
Boyle, J. R., & Forchelli, G. A. (2014). Differences in the note-taking skills of students with high achievement, average achievement, and learning disabilities. Learning and Individual Differences, 35, 9-14.
This 2019 study attempts to increase our knowledge base by examining the power of different forms of feedback as a means to increase the impact of teacher delivered feedback. The paper aims to investigate student perceptions of feedback through designing a student feedback perception questionnaire (SFPQ) based on a conceptual model of feedback.
Brooks, C., Huang, Y., Hattie, J., Carroll, A., & Burton, R. (2019). What is my next step? School students’ perceptions of feedback. In Frontiers in Education (Vol. 4, p. 96). Frontiers.
This book offers principles and strategies to use in motivating students to learn.
Brophy, J. (2013). Motivating students to learn. Routledge.
Conducted classroom observations and functional assessments for 3 male elementary school students (aged 6–9 yrs old) referred for disruptive behavior. A descriptive assessment was first conducted to select 1 of 3 hypotheses regarding potential variables maintaining the disruptive behavior: teacher attention, peer attention, or escape from academic tasks.
Broussard, C. D., & Northup, J. (1995). An approach to functional assessment and analysis of disruptive behavior in regular education classrooms. School Psychology Quarterly, 10(2), 151.
Employing a conceptual framework of generalization strategies proposed by Stokes and Osnes (1986), the authors selectively reviewed the research literature concerning interventions to improve young children's social behavior and strategies for promoting generalization and maintenance of young children's social responding. Three basic strategies are discussed.
Brown, W. H., & Odom, S. L. (1994). Strategies and tactics for promoting generalization and maintenance of young children's social behavior. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 15(2), 99-118.
Education Week is learning as it surveys educators across the country about the impact school closures have had on their morale, student engagement, technology skills, and many other factors.
Bushweller, K. (2020, June 2). How COVID-19 is shaping tech use. What that means when schools reopen. Education Week. https://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2020/06/03/how-covid-19-is-shaping-tech-use-what.html
The effects of long and short durations of positive practice overcorrection were studied, for the reduction of off-task behavior after an instruction to perform an object-placement task.
Carey, R. G., & Bucher, B. (1983). Positive practice overcorrection: The effects of duration of positive practice on acquisition and response reduction. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 16(1), 101-109.
Two issues relevant to competency-based teacher training were investigated--the specification of acceptable implementation levels for validated techniques and the necessity and feasibility of providing training on those techniques
Carnine, D. W., & Fink, W. T. (1978). Increasing the Rate of Presentation and Use of Signals in Elementary Classroom Teachers. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 11(1), 35-46.
This paper advances the discussion of the achievements differences between the higher and lower social-class groups were increasing, particularly between children in the highest income group and everyone else issue by analyzing trends in the influence of race/ethnicity, social class, and gender on students’ academic performance in the United States. This paper also explores the ways in which English language ability relates to Hispanics’ and Asian Americans’ academic performance over time (Nores and Barnett 2014).
Carnoy, M., & García, E. (2017). Five Key Trends in US Student Performance: Progress by Blacks and Hispanics, the Takeoff of Asians, the Stall of Non-English Speakers, the Persistence of Socioeconomic Gaps, and the Damaging Effect of Highly Segregated Schools. Economic Policy Institute.
This study developed a zero-to-five index of the strength of accountability in 50 states based on the use of high-stakes testing to sanction and reward schools, and analyzed whether that index is related to student gains on the NAEP mathematics test in 1996–2000.
Carnoy, M., & Loeb, S. (2002). Does external accountability affect student outcomes? A cross-state analysis. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 24(4), 305-331.
This child-effects concept was explored empirically in a study involving 12 adults who were asked to teach four pairs of children in which one member of the pair exhibited problem behavior and the other typically did not.
Carr, E. G., Taylor, J. C., & Robinson, S. (1991). The effects of severe behavior problems in children on the teaching behavior of adults. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 24(3), 523-535.
Using the most recent nationally representative data from the National Center for Education Statistics' Schools and Staffing Surveys, the authors detail which teachers are leaving, why, and which students are most impacted.
Carver-Thomas, D., & Darling-Hammond, L. (2019). The trouble with teacher turnover: How teacher attrition affects students and schools. education policy analysis archives, 27, 36.
This study developed a multi-metod approach to identifying students in middle school that would have academic difficulty in high school.
Casillas, A., Robbins, S., Allen, J., Kuo, Y.-L., Hanson, M. A., & Schmeiser, C. (2012). Predicting early academic failure in high school from prior academic achievement, psychosocial characteristics, and behavior. Journal of Educational Psychology, 104(2), 407-420. Retrieved from http://uic.edu.hk/~ylkuo/Kuo JEP 2012.pdf
This paper summarizes the results of a retrospective review of generalization in the context of social skills research with preschool children.
Chandler, L. K., Lubeck, R. C., & Fowler, S. A. (1992). Generalization and maintenance of preschool children's social skills: A critical review and analysis. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 25(2), 415-428.
This report provides a first look at students' persistence, retention, and attainment over 6 years, showing the rates at which students had completed postsecondary credentials, the rates at which they had persisted through or left postsecondary education without earning any credential as of spring 2017, and the rates at which they remained in the first institution in which they were enrolled. Postsecondary graduation rates in public institutions have stayed virtually the same for seven years, with 57% of students graduating in 2011 and 59% in 2017. Private non-profit institutions remained at 65-66% graduation for the first six years, increasing by 8 percentage points in 2017. Private for-profit institutions fared the worst, decreasing consistently from 42% in 2011 to 14% in 2017.
Chen, X., Elliott, B.G., Kinney, S.K., Cooney, D., Pretlow, J., Bryan, M., Wu, J., Ramirez, N.A., and Campbell, T. (2019). Persistence, Retention, and Attainment of 2011–12 First-Time Beginning Postsecondary Students as of Spring 2017 (First Look) (NCES 2019-401). U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.
This paper reviews the use of exit exams across the states and identifies challenges in implementation of these exams and what we know about the effects of them.
Chudowsky, N., Kober, N., Gayler, K. S., & Hamilton, M. (2002). State High School Exit Exams: A Baseline Report. ERIC. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED472055.pdf
There are clear parallels between instructional problems and social problems in both the way the respective behaviors are established and in the design of possible remedies. These parallels are identified and a basic instructional plan is presented for remedying social problems.
Colvin, G., & Sugai, G. (1988). Proactive strategies for managing social behavior problems: An instructional approach. Education and Treatment of Children, 341-348.
Two studies were conducted with children who displayed behavior problems to evaluate the effects of task preference, task demands, and adult attention on child behavior.
Cooper, L. J., Wacker, D. P., Thursby, D., Plagmann, L. A., Harding, J., Millard, T., & Derby, M. (1992). Analysis of the effects of task preferences, task demands, and adult attention on child behavior in outpatient and classroom settings. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 25(4), 823-840.
The present study used the instructional hierarchy to compare the effects of three instructional interventions (listening passage preview, subject passage preview, and taped words) on subjects' oral reading performance on word lists and passages.
Daly III, E. J., & Martens, B. K. (1994). A comparison of three interventions for increasing oral reading performance: Application of the instructional hierarchy. Journal of applied behavior analysis, 27(3), 459-469.
Examines the Instructional Hierarchy, a conceptual framework for refining the notion of academic responding according to a learning hierarchy and describing treatment components (e.g., modeling, drill, reinforcement, etc.) that correspond to different stages of the learning hierarchy.
Daly III, E. J., Lentz Jr, F. E., & Boyer, J. (1996). The Instructional Hierarchy: A conceptual model for understanding the effective components of reading interventions. School Psychology Quarterly, 11(4), 369.
Brief experimental analyses of oral reading fluency were conducted with 4 participants who had been referred by teachers and parents for reading problems. The procedures involved the sequential application of reading interventions to improve students’ oral reading fluency.
Daly III, E. J., Martens, B. K., Hamler, K. R., Dool, E. J., & Eckert, T. L. (1999). A brief experimental analysis for identifying instructional components needed to improve oral reading fluency. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 32(1), 83-94.
Brief experimental analyses of academic performance are emerging as a new tool educators can use to link assessment to intervention. This approach involves testing treatments directly using single-case experimental design elements to select intervention strategies for oral reading fluency problems. The purpose of this investigation was to refine the methods reported in previous studies.
Daly III, E. J., Murdoch, A., Lillenstein, L., Webber, L., & Lentz, F. E. (2002). An Examination of Methods for Testing Treatments: Conducting Brief Experimental Analyses of the Effects of Instructional Components on Oral Reading Fluency. Education & Treatment of Children, 25(3).
The purpose of this article is to describe a simple conceptual framework for academic intervention that extends functional analysis procedures to basic academic skills.
Daly III, E. J., Witt, J. C., Martens, B. K., & Dool, E. J. (1997). A model for conducting a functional analysis of academic performance problems. School Psychology Review.
Reading interventions were applied in a brief multielement format to examine their effectiveness at improving the oral reading fluency of three students referred for reading problems.
Daly, E. J., Martens, B. K., Dool, E. J., & Hintze, J. M. (1998). Using brief functional analysis to select interventions for oral reading. Journal of Behavioral Education, 8(2), 203-218.
Daly, I. I. I., Edward J, Martens, B. K., Barnett, D., Witt, J. C., & Olson, S. C. (2007). Varying Intervention Delivery in Response to Intervention: Confronting and Resolving Challenges With Measurement, Instruction, and Intensity. School Psychology Review, 36(4), 562-581.
The Framework for Teaching identifies those aspects of a teacher's responsibilities that have
been documented through empirical studies and theoretical research as promoting
improved student learning.
Danielson, C. (2013). The framework for teaching evaluation instrument, 2013 instructionally focused edition. Retrieved from http://usny.nysed.gov/rttt/teachers-leaders/practicerubrics/Docs/danielson-teacher-rubric-2013-instructionally-focused.pdf
Economic and demographic changes in the United States signal a new mission for education. This paper argues that this changed mission requires a new paradigm for school reform policy, one that shifts from designing controls intended to direct the system to developing capacity that enables schools to meet students' needs.
Darling-Hammond, L. (1992). Reframing the School Reform Agenda: Developing Capacity for School Transformation.
In the current study, constant time delay (CTD) was embedded in classroom activities and routines to teach counting to young children. In addition, nontarget information (the color of the object) was included in the task direction. A multiple-probe design across numbers replicated across children was used.
Daugherty, S., Grisham-Brown, J., & Hemmeter, M. L. (2001). The effects of embedded skill instruction on the acquisition of target and nontarget skills in preschoolers with developmental delays. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 21(4), 213-221.
This Digest examines some of the ways that truancy affects both individuals and society. It identifies factors that may place students at greater risk of becoming truant and lists some consequences of nonattendance, including delayed promotion and graduation, lowered self-esteem, and lessened employment potential.
DeKalb, J. (1999). Student truancy. ERIC Digest
Tustin (1994) recently observed that an individual’s preference for one of two concurrently available reinforcers under low schedule requirements switched to the other reinforcer when the schedule requirements were high. This paper extended this line of research by examining preference for similar and dissimilar reinforcers.
Deleon, I. G., Iwata, B. A., GOH, H. L., & Worsdell, A. S. (1997). Emergence of reinforcer preference as a function of schedule requirements and stimulus similarity. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 30(3), 439-449.
This study describe the schools, students, and programs in the for-profit higher education sector, it's phenomenal recent growth, and it's relationship to the federal and state governments. The study find that for-profit institutions educate a larger fraction of minority, disadvantaged, and older students, and they have greater success at reatining students in their first year and fetting them to complete short programs at the certificate and AA levels. But they also find that the for-profit students end-up with higher unemployment and "idleness" rates and lower earning six years after entering programs than do comparable students from other schools. and they have far greater student debt burdens and default rates on their student loans.
Deming, David J., Claudia Goldin, and Lawrence F. Katz. 2012. "The For-Profit Postsecondary School Sector: Nimble Critters or Agile Predators?" Journal of Economic Perspectives, 26 (1): 139-64.
The monograph presents 15 papers on the provision of special education services within the regular classroom.
Deno, E. N. (1973). Instructional Alternatives for Exceptional Children.
Three concurrent validity studies were conducted on the relationship between performances on formative measures of spelling and performances on standardized spelling achievement measures using learning disabled (LD) and non-LD elementary students.
Deno, S. L. (1980). Relationships Among Simple Measures of Spelling and Performance on Standardized Achievement Tests.
The author makes the argument that curriculum based measurement meets the psychometric requirements of being reliaable and valid as well as providing useful information to teachers.
Deno, S. L. (1985). Curriculum-based Measurement: The Emerging Alternative. Exceptional Children, 52(3). Retrieved from http://ecx.sagepub.com/content/52/3/219.abstract
Curriculum-based measurement is a type of formative assessment. It is used to screen for students who are not progressing and to identify how well students are responding to interventions.
Deno, S. L. (2003). Developments in Curriculum-Based Measurement. Journal of Special Education, 37(3), 184-192.
This article reviews the advantages of curriculum-based measurement as part of a data-based problem solving model.
Deno, S. L., & Fuchs, L. S. (1987). Developing Curriculum-Based Measurement Systems For Data Based Special Education Problem Solving. Focus on Exceptional Children, 19(8), 1-16.
Three concurrent validity studies were conducted to determine the relationship between performances on formative measures of reading and standardized achievement measures of reading.
Deno, S. L., Mirkin, P. K., & Chiang, B. (1982). Identifying valid measures of reading. Exceptional children, 49(1), 36-47.
a mini-series from School Psychology Review about Academic Enablers to Improve Student Performance: Considerations for Research and Practice.
DiPerna, J., & Elliott, S. N. (2002). Promoting academic enablers to improve student performance: Considerations for research and practice [Special issue]. School Psychology Review, 31(3).
Demonstrates the use of functional assessment procedures to identify the appropriate use of the Picture Exchange Communication system as part of a behavior support plan to resolve serious problems exhibited by a 3 yr old boy with autism and pervasive developmental disorder.
Dooley, P., Wilczenski, F. L., & Torem, C. (2001). Using an activity schedule to smooth school transitions. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 3(1), 57-61.
Dougherty, C., Mellor, L., & Jian, S. (2006). The Relationship between Advanced Placement and College Graduation. 2005 AP Study Series, Report 1. National Center for Educational Accountability. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED519365.pdf
This article presents the legal requirements of the IDEA amendments regarding ISPs, FBAs, and BIPs for special education students with problem behavior, (b) describe the initial policy letters, and (c) discuss the implications of the law for school psychologists and other members of IEP teams.
Drasgow, E., & Yell, M. L. (2001). Legal Requirements and Challenges. School Psychology Review, 30(2), 239-251.
This study evaluated the effect feedback to student peer tutors had on the level of treatment integrity in implementing a peer tutoring program.
Dufrene, B. A., Noell, G. H., Gilbertson, D. N., & Duhon, G. J. (2005). Monitoring Implementation of Reciprocal Peer Tutoring: Identifying and Intervening With Students Who Do Not Maintain Accurate Implementation. School Psychology Review, 34(1), 74-86.
Two analyses investigated the effects of choice making on the responding of elementary school students with emotional and behavioral challenges.
Dunlap, G., DePerczel, M., Clarke, S., Wilson, D., Wright, S., White, R., & Gomez, A. (1994). Choice making to promote adaptive behavior for students with emotional and behavioral challenges. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 27(3), 505-518.
This is a book about single-subject experiments. The goal is to detail the underlying rationale and logic of single-case designs and to present major design options.
Edgington, E. (1983). Response-guided experimentation. Psyccritiques, 28(1), 64-65.
Featuring step-by-step guidance, examples, and forms, this guide to functional assessment procedures provides a first step toward designing positive and educative programs to eliminate serious behavior problems.
EDITION, N. T. T. (2015). Functional assessment and program development for problem behavior: a practical handbook.
Education Cities and GreatSchools have together launched the Education Equality Index in an attempt to answer "how does the U.S. fare in our effort to provide equal opportunity to all children?" question. The Education Equality Index is the first national comparative measure of the achievement gap between children growing up in low-income communities and their more advantaged peers.
Education Equality in America Comparing the Achievement Gap Across School and Cities. (2016, March). Education Equality Index. Retrieved from http://www.educationequalityindex.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Education-Equality-in-America-v1-4.pdf
Presents 4 case studies demonstrating an innovative approach for studying and promoting treatment integrity in a manner acceptable to consultees and related to treatment success.
Ehrhardt, K. E., Barnett, D. W., Lentz Jr, F. E., Stollar, S. A., & Reifin, L. H. (1996). Innovative methodology in ecological consultation: Use of scripts to promote treatment acceptability and integrity. School Psychology Quarterly, 11(2), 149.
This study evaluated the reliability and validity of DIBELS-M as a meaure to predict students at risk for reading failure.
Elliott, J., Lee, S. W., & Tollefson, N. (2001). A reliability and validity study of the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills--Modified. School Psychology Review. Retrieved from http://www.academia.edu/download/30687244/elliott2001.pdf
Examines the fundamental characteristics of and reviews empirical research on performance assessment of diverse groups of students, including those with mild disabilities. Discussion of the technical qualities of performance assessment and barriers to its advancement leads to the conclusion that performance assessment should play a supplementary role in the evaluation of students with significant learning problems
Elliott, S. N. (1998). Performance Assessment of Students' Achievement: Research and Practice. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 13(4), 233-41.
Research on classroom management is reviewed, with an emphasis on lines of inquiry originating in educational psychology with implications for teacher education.
Emmer, E. T., & Stough, L. M. (2001). Classroom management: A critical part of educational psychology, with implications for teacher education. Educational psychologist, 36(2), 103-112.
This article provides a wide range of information for 100 articles published from January 1980 through July 1999 that describe the functional assessment (FA) of behavior in school settings.
Ervin, R. A., Radford, P. M., Bertsch, K., & Piper, A. L. (2001). A descriptive analysis and critique of the empirical literature on school-based functional assessment. School Psychology Review, 30(2), 193.
This article describes using formative assessemnt as a foundational tool in a data-based problem solving approach to solving social behavior problems.
Ervin, R. A., Schaughency, E., Matthews, A., Goodman, S. D., & McGlinchey, M. T. (2007). Primary and secondary prevention of behavior difficulties: Developing a data-informed problem-solving model to guide decision making at a school-wide level. Psychology in the Schools, 44(1), 7-18.
This research examines the impact of longer school days on student achievement. This study attempts to fill in gaps in the evidence-base on this topic. Although this study finds positive outcomes for additional reading instruction, it is important to note that for achieving maximum results it is important to pair evidence-based reading instruction practices with the additional instruction time in order to achieve maximum results.
Figlio, D., Holden, K. L., & Ozek, U. (2018). Do students benefit from longer school days? Regression discontinuity evidence from Florida’s additional hour of literacy instruction. Economics of Education Review, 67, 171-183.
This systematic review synthesizes the findings from 30 studies thatcompared the performance of students at schools using single‐trackyear‐round calendars to the performance of students at schools usinga traditional calendar.
Fitzpatrick, D., & Burns, J. (2019). Single‐track year‐round education for improving academic achievement in US K‐12 schools: Results of a meta‐analysis. Campbell Systematic Reviews, 15(3), e1053.
This report reviews the technical adequacy of measures of math performance for the purposes of identifying at risk learners.
Foegen, A., Jiban, C., & Deno, S. (2007). Progress monitoring measures in mathematics: A review of the literature. Journal of Special Education, 41(2), p121-139. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ775117.pdf
The four applied single-subject research designs presented provide an overview of the most common types of single-subject research designs that can be used by a school counselor.
Foster, L. H., Watson, T. S., Meeks, C., & Young, J. S. (2002). Single-subject research design for school counselors: Becoming an applied researcher. Professional School Counseling, 6(2), 146-154.
A peer-monitoring procedure and a self-monitoring procedure were developed to decrease disruption and non participation during the transition activities of a special kindergarten class.
Fowler, S. A. (1986). Peer-monitoring and self-monitoring: Alternatives to traditional teacher management. Exceptional Children, 52(6), 573-581.
Research that claims to focus on students with disabilities in online learning environments should be designed and carried out with particular attention to educational and social outcomes. The Center on Online Learning and Students with Disabilities (COLSD) conducts research in alignment with these goals.
Franklin, T. O., East, T., & Mellard, D.F. (2015). Parent preparation and involvement in their child’s online learning experience: Superintendent Forum Proceedings Series. (Report No. 2). Lawrence, KS: Center on Online Instruction and Students with Disabilities, University of Kansas. http://www.centerononlinelearning.res.ku.edu/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/Superintendent_Topic_2_Summary_November2015.pdf
The purpose of this study was to implement and validate a process for readying students to transition successfully from special education resource rooms to regular classrooms for math instruction.
Fuchs, D., Fuchs, L. S., & Fernstrom, P. (1993). A conservative approach to special education reform: Mainstreaming through transenvironmental programming and curriculum-based measurement. American Educational Research Journal, 30(1), 149-177.
This paper reports the results of a study that investigated the reading differences between students who were low achieving, both with and without the label of learning disabilities (LD).
Fuchs, D., Fuchs, L. S., Mathes, P. G., Lipsey, M. W., & Roberts, P. H. (2001). Is" Learning Disabilities" Just a Fancy Term for Low Achievement?: A Meta-Analysis of Reading Differences Between Low Achievers with and Without the Label. Executive Summary. ERIC Clearinghouse.
This assessment of the reliability and validity of skills analysis programs within curriculum-based measurement (CBM), with various groups of handicapped and nonhandicapped youngsters, indicated that the skills analysis programs in spelling and math provided consistent information that related well to the primary graphed CBM scores.
Fuchs, L. S. (1989). The Reliability and Validity of Skills Analysis within Curriculum-Based Measurement. Diagnostique, 14(4), 203-21.
This digest summarizes principles of performance assessment, which connects classroom assessment to learning. Specific ways that assessment can enhance instruction are outlined, as are criteria that assessments should meet in order to inform instructional decisions. Performance assessment is compared to behavioral assessment, mastery learning, and curriculum-based management.
Fuchs, L. S. (1995). Connecting Performance Assessment to Instruction: A Comparison of Behavioral Assessment, Mastery Learning, Curriculum-Based Measurement, and Performance Assessment. ERIC Digest E530.
This article compares and contrasts mastery level measures (grades) with curriculum-based measurement (global outcome measure).
Fuchs, L. S., & Deno, S. L. (1991). Paradigmatic distinctions between instructionally relevant measurement models. Exceptional Children, 57(6), 488-500.
In this meta-analysis of studies that utilize formative assessment the authors report an effective size of .7.
Fuchs, L. S., & Fuchs, D. (1986). Effects of Systematic Formative Evaluation: A Meta-Analysis. Exceptional Children, 53(3), 199-208.
Curriculum-based measurement is recommended as an assessment method to identify students that require special education services.
Fuchs, L. S., & Fuchs, D. (1997). Use of curriculum-based measurement in identifying students with disabilities. Focus on Exceptional Children, 1.
Discusses treatment validity as a unifying concept for reconceptualizing the identification of learning disabilities. The authors present a rationale for this alternative framework, use one well-developed classroom assessment method to illustrate the technical requirements of this alternative eligibility process, and discuss the feasibility issues this approach presents.
Fuchs, L. S., & Fuchs, D. (1998). Treatment validity: A unifying concept for reconceptualizing the identification of learning disabilities. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 13(4), 204-219.
The purpose of this article is to describe and critique three classroom-based assessment models for monitoring student progress toward becoming competent readers.
Fuchs, L. S., & Fuchs, D. (1999). Monitoring student progress toward the development of reading competence: A review of three forms of classroom-based assessment. School Psychology Review, 28(4).
In conjunction with a curriculum-based measurement (CBM) computer program, software was designed to identify 27 phonetic patterns within correctly spelled words and 27 spelling error types within misspelled words. Two applications of this software were examined.
Fuchs, L. S., Allinder, R. M., Hamlett, C. L., & Fuchs, D. (1990). An analysis of spelling curricula and teachers' skills in identifying error types. Remedial and Special Education, 11(1), 42-52.
The effects of aggregation on the reliability of curriculum-based measuresof academic performance were explored in two studies.
Fuchs, L. S., Deno, S. L., & Marston, D. (1983). Improving the reliability of curriculum-based measures of academic skills for psychoeducational decision making. Diagnostique, 8(3), 135-149.
This study examined the educational effects of repeated curriculumbased measurement and evaluation. Thirty-nine special educators, each having three to four pupils in the study, were assigned randomly to a repeated curriculum-based measurement/evaluation (experimental) treatment or a conventional special education evaluation (contrast) treatment
Fuchs, L. S., Deno, S. L., & Mirkin, P. K. (1984). The effects of frequent curriculum-based measurement and evaluation on pedagogy, student achievement, and student awareness of learning. American Educational Research Journal, 21(2), 449-460.
A study was conducted to explore the reliability and validity of three prominent procedures used in informal reading inventories (IRIs)
Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., & Deno, S. L. (1982). Reliability and validity of curriculum-based informal reading inventories. Reading Research Quarterly, 6-26.
This study assessed the effects of alternative goal structures within curriculum-based measurement (CBM) in the area of math.
Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., & Hamlett, C. L. (1989). Effects of alternative goal structures within curriculum-based measurement. Exceptional Children, 55(5), 429-438.
This study investigated the importance of instrumental use of curriculum-based measurement (CBM) to planning effective reading programs.
Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., & Hamlett, C. L. (1989). Effects of instrumental use of curriculum-based measurement to enhance instructional programs. Remedial and Special Education, 10(2), 43-52.
The purpose of this study was to compare two types of teacher feedback, using an ongoing measurement system that involved students’ performance on a reading recall task.
Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., & Hamlett, C. L. (1989). Monitoring reading growth using student recalls: Effects of two teacher feedback systems. The Journal of Educational Research, 83(2), 103-110.
This article describes a research program conducted over the past 8 years to address how technology can be used to surmount these implementation difficulties. The research program focused on one variety of objective, ongoing assessments known as curriculum-based measurement, in the areas of reading, spelling, and math.
Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., & Hamlett, C. L. (1993). Technological advances linking the assessment of students' academic proficiency to instructional planning. Journal of Special Education Technology, 12(1), 49-62.
This article reviews an inductive assessment model for building instructional programs that satisfy the requirement that satisfy the requirement that special education be planned to address an individual student's need.
Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., & Hamlett, C. L. (1994). Strengthening the connection between assessment and instructional planning with expert systems. Exceptional Children, 61(2), 138.
This study examines the effect of formative assessment on teachers’ instructional planning.
Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., & Stecker, P. M. (1989). Effects of Curriculum-Based Measurement on Teachers’ Instructional Planning. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 22(1).
30 special education teachers were assigned randomly to 3 groups: curriculum-based measurement (CBM) with expert system advice (CBM-ES), CBM with no expert system advice (CBM-NES), and control (i.e., no CBM).
Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., Hamlett, C. L., & Allinder, R. M. (1991). Effects of expert system advice within curriculum-based measurement on teacher planning and student achievement in spelling. School Psychology Review.
This study assessed the effects of expert system instructional consultation within curriculum-based measurement (CBM).
Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., Hamlett, C. L., & Ferguson, C. (1992). Effects of expert system consultation within curriculum-based measurement, using a reading maze task. Exceptional children, 58(5), 436-450.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of using computer software to store, graph, and analyze student performance data on teacher efficiency and satisfaction with curriculum-based progress-monitoring procedures.
Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., Hamlett, C. L., & Hasselbring, T. S. (1987). Using computers with curriculum-based monitoring: Effects on teacher efficiency and satisfaction. Journal of Special Education Technology, 8(4), 14-27.
Examined the role of skills analysis (SA) in curriculum-based measurement (CBM) for the purpose of developing more effective instructional (mathematics) programs. 30 special education teachers implemented 1 of 3 treatments for 15 wks with a total of 91 mildly and moderately handicapped pupils.
Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., Hamlett, C. L., & Stecker, P. M. (1990). The role of skills analysis in curriculum-based measurement in math. School Psychology Review.
This study examined the effectiveness of innovative curriculum-based measurement (CBM) classwide decision-making structures within general education mathematics instruction, with and without recommendations for how to incorporate CBM feedback into instructional planning.
Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., Hamlett, C. L., Phillips, N. B., & Bentz, J. (1994). Classwide curriculum-based measurement: Helping general educators meet the challenge of student diversity. Exceptional Children, 60(6), 518-537.
The purpose of this classroom-based experiment was to explore methods for helping students generate conceptual mathematical explanations during peer-mediated learning activities.
Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., Hamlett, C. L., Phillips, N. B., Karns, K., & Dutka, S. (1997). Enhancing students' helping behavior during peer-mediated instruction with conceptual mathematical explanations. The Elementary School Journal, 97(3), 223-249.
The purpose of this study was to investigate technical features of a curriculum-based measurement (CBM) system that addresses a concepts and applications mathematics curriculum (i.e., number concepts, counting, applied computation, geometry, measurement, charts, graphs, money, and problem solving).
Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., Hamlett, C. L., Thompson, A., Roberts, P. H., Kubek, P., & Stecker, P. M. (1994). Technical features of a mathematics concepts and applications curriculum-based measurement system. Diagnostique, 19(4), 23-49.
The purpose of this study was to examine students' weekly rates of academic growth, or slopes of achievement, when Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) is conducted repeatedly over 1 year.
Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., Hamlett, C. L., Walz, L., & Germann, G. (1993). Formative evaluation of academic progress: How much growth can we expect?. School Psychology Review, 22, 27-27.
The purpose of this study was to examine effects of classroom-basedperformance-assessment (PA)-driven instruction.
Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., Karns, K., Hamlett, C. L., & Katzaroff, M. (1999). Mathematics performance assessment in the classroom: Effects on teacher planning and student problem solving. American educational research journal, 36(3), 609-646.
The purposes of this study were to examine how well 3 measures, representing 3 points on a traditional-alternative mathematics assessment continuum, interrelated and discriminated students achieving above, at, and below grade level and to explore effects of cooperative testing for the most innovative measure (performance assessment).
Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., Karns, K., Hamlett, C., Katzaroff, M., & Dutka, S. (1998). Comparisons among individual and cooperative performance assessments and other measures of mathematics competence. The Elementary School Journal, 99(1), 23-51.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of workgroup size and structure during collaborative work on complex tasks.
Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., Kazdan, S., Karns, K., Calhoon, M. B., Hamlett, C. L., & Hewlett, S. (2000). Effects of workgroup structure and size on student productivity during collaborative work on complex tasks. The Elementary School Journal, 100(3), 183-212.
This study assessed the efficiency of and teacher satisfaction with curriculum-based measurement (CBM) when student performance data are collected by teachers or by computers.
Fuchs, L. S., Hamlett, C. L., Fuchs, D., Stecker, P. M., & Ferguson, C. (1988). Conducting curriculum-based measurement with computerized data collection: Effects on efficiency and teacher satisfaction. Journal of Special Education Technology, 9(2), 73-86.
The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of (a) ongoing, systematic assessment of student growth (i.e., curriculum-based measurement) and (b) expert system instructional consultation on teacher planning and student achievement in the area of mathematics operations.
Fuchs, L. S., Hamlett, D. F. C. L., & Stecker, P. M. (1991). Effects of curriculum-based measurement and consultation on teacher planning and student achievement in mathematics operations. American educational research journal, 28(3), 617-641.
High-school grades are often viewed as an unreliable criterion for college admissions, owing to differences in grading standards across high schools, while standardized tests are seen as methodologically rigorous, providing a more uniform and valid yardstick for assessing student ability and achievement. The present study challenges that conventional view. The study finds that high-school grade point average (HSGPA) is consistently the best predictor not only of freshman grades in college, the outcome indicator most often employed in predictive-validity studies, but of four-year college outcomes as well.
Geiser, S., & Santelices, M. V. (2007). Validity of High-School Grades in Predicting Student Success beyond the Freshman Year: High-School Record vs. Standardized Tests as Indicators of Four-Year College Outcomes. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE. 6.07. Center for studies in higher education.
A model of special education is presented in this article based on the use of a direct and repeated measurement and evaluation system for developing effective educational programs.
Germann, G., & Tindal, G. (1985). An application of curriculum-based assessment: The use of direct and repeated measurement. Exceptional Children, 52(3), 244-265.
This paper reviews several measures that serve as early identification measures for students at risk for math difficulties.
Gersten, R., Jordan, N. C., & Flojo, J. R. (2005). Early identification and interventions for students with mathematics difficulties. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 38(4). Retrieved from http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/00222194050380040301
Four second-grade boys, 2 rated by their classroom teacher as below average and 2 as above average in basic language skills, participated in a 16-week spelling investigation.
Gettinger, M. (1993). Effects of invented spelling and direct instruction on spelling performance of second‐grade boys. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 26(3), 281-291.
Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills is a measure of reading skills. This paper reviews the psychometric properties of the various measures included in DIBELS.
Goffreda, C. T., & DiPerna, J. C. (2010). An empirical review of psychometric evidence for the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills. School Psychology Review. Retrieved from http://rachaelrobinsonedsi.wiki.westga.edu/file/view/an+empirical+review+of+basic+early+literacy+skills.pdf/238268899/an empirical review of basic early literacy skills.pdf
TIMSS is designed to align broadly with mathematics and science curricula in the participating countries. This report focuses on the performance of U.S. students relative to that of their peers in other countries in 2007, and on changes in mathematics and science achievement since 1995. This report also describes additional details about the achievement of U.S. student subpopulations. All differences described in this report are statistically significant at the .05 level. No statistical adjustments to account for multiple comparisons were used.
Gonzales, P., Williams, T., Jocelyn, L., Roey, S., Kastberg, D., & Brenwald, S. (2008). Highlights from TIMSS 2007: Mathematics and Science Achievement of US Fourth-and Eighth-Grade Students in an International Context. NCES 2009-001. National Center for Education Statistics.
Examined the forecasting accuracy of 2 slope estimation procedures (ordinary-least-squares regression and split-middle trend lines) for reading curriculum-based measurement (CBM), a behavioral approach to the assessment of academic skills that emphasizes the direct measurement of academic behaviors.
Good, R. H., & Shinn, M. R. (1990). Forecasting accuracy of slope estimates for reading curriculum-based measurement: Empirical evidence. Behavioral Assessment.
This paper reviews the use of DIBELS and curriculum-based measurement as methods for the early identification of students at risk for reading difficulties.
Good, R. H., III, Kaminski, R. A., Simmons, D., & Kame’enui, E. J. (2001). Using Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) in an Outcomes-Driven Model: Steps to Reading Outcomes. OSSC Bulletin. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED453526.pdf
The authors contrast the functions of high stakes testing with prevention-based assessment. The authors also show the value of using formative assesment to estimate performance on high stakes tests.
Good, R.H., III., Simmons, D. C., & Kame’enui, E. J. (2001). The Importance and Decision-Making Utility of a Continuum of Fluency-Based Indicators of Foundational Reading Skills for Third-Grade High-Stakes Outcomes. Scientific Studies of Reading, 5(3), 257-288.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact that a self-contained Least Restrictive Environment (LRE) with a reduced adult to student ratio would have on the frequency of SED students’ on-task behavior and overall lesson engagement throughout the school day.
Gooding, E. (2017). Reducing Disruptive Behavior in Students with Serious Emotional Disturbance.
This article examines the current "third wave" school restructuring movement and its attempt to reform U.S. schools based on the perceived needs of the information age.
Goodman, J. (1995). Change without difference: School restructuring in historical perspective. Harvard Educational Review, 65(1), 1-30.
In this review, the authors identify and describe 34 universal and targeted interventions that have demonstrated positive outcomes under rigorous evaluation.
Greenberg, M. T., Domitrovich, C., & Bumbarger, B. (2001). The prevention of mental disorders in school-aged children: Current state of the field. Prevention & treatment, 4(1), 1a.
This study examines whether the results of standardized tests are distorted when rewards and sanctions are attached to them.
Greene, J., Winters, M., & Forster, G. (2004). Testing high-stakes tests: Can we believe the results of accountability tests?. The Teachers College Record, 106(6), 1124-1144.
Examines evidence supporting performance-based instructional models. Performance-based instructional models posit change in students' classroom behavior and academic achievement to be a function of changes in instruction.
Greenwood, C. R. (1996). The case for performance-based instructional models. School Psychology Quarterly, 11(4), 283.
Curriculum based measures were used to to evaluate student progress across multiple years following the introduction of selected evidence-based practices.
Greenwood, C. R., Tapia, Y., Abbott, M., & Walton, C. (2003). A Building-Based Case Study of Evidence-Based Literacy Practices: Implementation, Reading Behavior, and Growth in Reading Fluency, K--4. Journal of Special Education, 37(2), 95.
Resistance to intervention is a function of a number of factors including the severity, chronicity, generalization, and tolerance of the behavior, as well as the strength, acceptability, and effectiveness of interventions. These factors are discussed, and implications for referral, assessment, intervention, and classification are presented.
Gresham, F. M. (1991). Conceptualizing behavior disorders in terms of resistance to intervention. School Psychology Review.
Three group-oriented contingency systems (interdependent, dependent, and independent) were compared in a modified reversal design to evaluate each system's effectiveness in controlling the disruptive behavior of a self-contained classroom of educable mentally retarded children.
Gresham, F. M., & Gresham, G. N. (1982). Interdependent, dependent, and independent group contingencies for controlling disruptive behavior. The Journal of Special Education, 16(1), 101-110.
This article maintains that intelligence tests contribute little if any information useful for the planning, implementation, and evaluation of instructional interventions for children. This argument is supported by the virtual absence of empirical evidence supporting the existence of aptitude × treatment interactions.
Gresham, F. M., & Witt, J. C. (1997). Utility of intelligence tests for treatment planning, classification, and placement decisions: Recent empirical findings and future directions. School Psychology Quarterly, 12(3), 249.
Individualized assessments of the effects of three doses of methylphenidate (MPH) were conducted for 2 students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder within each child’s classroom using behavioral, academic, and social measures.
Gulley, V., & Northup, J. (1997). Comprehensive school‐based behavioral assessment of the effects of methylphenidate. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 30(4), 627-638.
In this paper research is identified that supports the use of specific classroom management strategies in classrooms for children with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). Information is presented that indicates that these strategies may not be implemented or may not be effectively implemented by the teachers of students with EBD.
Gunter, P. L., & Denny, R. K. (1996). Research issues and needs regarding teacher use of classroom management strategies. Behavioral Disorders, 22(1), 15-20.
This paper examined the extent to which alternative stimuli that have been identified through a choice assessment would substitute for attention (the functional analysis–based reinforcer) in a noncontingent reinforcement procedure.
Hanley, G. P., Piazza, C. C., & Fisher, W. W. (1997). Noncontingent presentation of attention and alternative stimuli in the treatment of attention‐maintained destructive behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 30(2), 229-237.
This report is the first chapter of the 2018 Brown Center Report on American Education. This section explore trends in math, reading, and civics performance from the late 1990s through the most recent year in which results are available (2017 in math and reading, 2014 in civics). It show trends in nationwide performance and in test score gaps by race (white-black), ethnicity (white-Hispanic), and family income (based on eligibility for free or reduced-price lunch [FRL]). In doing so, this report examine test score trajectories from the beginning to the end of the No Child Left Behind era (NCLB). The 2017 results, in particular, reflect a boundary in the timeline of education policy, demarcating the end of NCLB and the beginning of the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA).
Hansen, M., Levesque, E., Valant, J., & Quintero, D. (2018). The 2018 Brown Center Report on American Education: How Well are American Students Learning. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution.
The Coleman Report was mandated by the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The act gave the US Office of Education two years to produce a report that was expected to describe the inequality of educational opportunities in elementary and secondary education across the United States.
Hanushek, E. A. (2016). What matters for student achievement. Education Next, 16(2), 18-26.
This paper provides direct evidence about the impacts of school job matching on productivity and student achievement.
Hanushek, E. A., & Rivkin, S. G. (2010). Constrained job matching: Does teacher job search harm disadvantaged urban schools? Working Paper No. 15816. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved from https://www.nber.org/papers/w15816.pdf
This new research addresses a number of critical questions: Are a teacher’s cognitive skills a good predictor of teacher quality? This study examines the student achievement of 36 developed countries in the context of teacher cognitive skills. This study finds substantial differences in teacher cognitive skills across countries that are strongly related to student performance.
Hanushek, E. A., Piopiunik, M., & Wiederhold, S. (2014). The value of smarter teachers: International evidence on teacher cognitive skills and student performance (No. w20727). National Bureau of Economic Research.
Seven parents conducted assessments in an outpatient clinic using a prescribed hierarchy of antecedent and consequence treatment components for their children's problem behavior. Brief assessment of potential treatment components was conducted to identify variables that controlled the children's appropriate behavior.
Harding, J., Wacker, D. P., Cooper, L. J., Millard, T., & Jensen‐Kovalan, P. (1994). Brief hierarchical assessment of potential treatment components with children in an outpatient clinic. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 27(2), 291-300.
This article addresses whether or not the assumptions upon which IDEA is based remain valid as we approach the 21st century. We critique these assumptions within the context of four requirements of IDEA
Hardman, Michael & Mcdonnell, John & Welch, Marshall. (1997). Perspectives on the future of IDEA. Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps. 22. 10.1177/154079699702200201.
The authors study the effects of various types of education and training on the ability of teachers to promote student achievement.
Harris, D. N., & Sass, T. R. (2011). Teacher training, teacher quality and student achievement. Journal of Public Economics, 95(7–8), 798-812.
Large‐scale research programmes in primary schools have frequently identified a mismatch between classroom seating arrangements and the nature of pupils’ tasks. While children are typically seated in groups, their assigned tasks are generally individual.
Hastings, N., & Schwieso, J. (1995). Tasks and tables: The effects of seating arrangements on task engagement in primary classrooms. Educational Research, 37(3), 279–291.
The report considers the appropriate uses and misuses of high stakes tests in making decisions for students. The fundamental question is whether test scores lead to consequences that are educationally beneficial.
Heubert, J. P., & Hauser, R. M. (1998). High stakes: Testing for tracking, promotion, and graduation. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED439151.pdf
The contributing authors present literature reviews, conceptual analyses, and data from several original studies; they describe advancements in curricula, classroom and schoolwide interventions, and teacher training programs; and they offer personal perspectives on the current status and future directions of behavior analysis in education.
Heward, W. L., Heron, T. E., Neef, N. A., Peterson, S. M., Sainato, D. M., Cartledge, G. Y., Gardner, R., Peterson, L. D., Hersh, S. B., Dardig, J. C. (2005). Focus on behavior analysis in education: Achievements, challenges, and opportunities. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Merrill/Prentice Hall.
In 2017, the percentages of eighth-grade students who performed at or above the Proficient level were higher for several student groups in comparison to 2015. For example, the percentages of Black and Hispanic eighth-grade students who performed at or above the Proficient level on the reading assessment were higher in 2017 compared to 2015. The percentages of students who performed at or above Proficient were also higher for male and female students, students attending public schools, as well as for eighth-graders attending schools in suburban locations. Compared to 2015, there were no significant changes in the percentages of students performing at or above the Basic level for any reported student group.
Higher percentage of Black and Hispanic eighth-grade students at or above Proficient in reading compared to 2015. (2017). Nations Report Card. Retrieved from https://www.nationsreportcard.gov/reading_2017/nation/achievement/?grade=8
The purpose of this study is to compare different statistical and methodological approaches to standard setting and determining cut scores using R- CBM and performance on high-stakes tests
Hintze, J. M., & Silberglitt, B. (2005). A longitudinal examination of the diagnostic accuracy and predictive validity of R-CBM and high-stakes testing. School Psychology Review, 34(3), 372.
In this issue of JPBI, the forum is dedicated to comments from administrators, teachers, parents, students, and specialists who are participating in efforts to establish school-wide behavior support.
Horner, R. H., & Sugai, G. (2000). School-wide behavior support: An emerging initiative. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 2(4), 231.
In the last 20 years, international surveys assessing learning in reading, mathematics and science have been headline news because they put countries in rank order according to performance. The three most well known surveys are TIMSS, PISA and PIRLS. The survey offer information about international performances for the use of others in order to drive up education standards everywhere. They also emphasise that their aim is to facilitate dissemination of ideas on which features of education systems lead to the best performances.
International surveys TIMSS, PISA, PIRLS. (2017). Cambridge Assessment international Education. Retrieved from https://www.cambridgeinternational.org/Images/271193-international-surveys-pisa-timss-pirls.pdf
In this chapter, we will review several treatment models and their limitations, which are best understood following a brief discussion of the learned (functional) characteristics of behavior disorders.
Iwata, B. A., Vollmer, T. R., Zarcone, J. R., & Rodgers, T. A. (1993). Treatment classification and selection based on behavioral function. In Behavior analysis and treatment (pp. 101-125). Springer, Boston, MA.
This study evaluated the effects of high stakes testing on the achievement levels of students in Chicago Public Schools. The data suggests that even though scores went up on the high stakes tests scores on “low stakes” achievement tests did not improve. This suggests increases in scores was a function increases in test-specific skills rather than a general improvement in student learning. These findings give credence to the “teaching to the test” criticisms.
Jacob, B. A. (2005). Accountability, incentives and behavior: The impact of high-stakes testing in the Chicago Public Schools. Journal of public Economics. Retrieved from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.401.6599&rep=rep1&type=pdf
This article show evidence of ACT scores drop on 2016. ACT officials attribute the drop to the increasing percentage of high school seniors who have taken the test. Generally, when a larger share of students take a test - in some cases encouraged by state requirements more than the students necessarily being college ready - scores go down.
Jaschnik, S. (2016, August). ACT Scores Drop as More Take Test. Inside Higher Ed. Retrieved from https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2016/08/24/average-act-scores-drop-more-people-take-test
This study sought to determine whether or not student teachers who were trained and required to use a data-based problem-solving approach in their practicum classrooms would obtain higher levels of pupil achievement in reading and mathematics than student teachers who did not receive the training.
Jones, E. D., & Krouse, J. P. (1986). The Effectiveness of Data-Based Instruction by Student Teachers in Classrooms for Students with Mild Learning Handicaps.
This study used Dynamic Inicators of Early Basic Literacy Skills and the Systematic Screening for Behavior Disorders to identify students at risk for reading or behavioral difficulties. These students were followed through 4th grade to see how well they responded to three different reading instruction. practices.
Kamps, D. M., Wills, H. P., Greenwood, C. R., Thorne, S., Lazo, J. F., Crockett, J. L., . . . Swaggart, B. L. (2003). Curriculum Influences on Growth in Early Reading Fluency for Students with Academic and Behavioral Risks. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 11(4), 211-224. doi:10.1177/10634266030110040301
This study used a random-assignment experiment in Los Angeles Unified School District to evaluate various non-experimental methods for estimating teacher effects on student test scores. Having estimated teacher effects during a pre-experimental period, the authors used these estimates to predict student achievement following random assignment of teachers to classrooms.
Kane, T. J., & Staiger, D. O. (2008). Estimating teacher impacts on student achievement: An experimental evaluation (No. w14607). National Bureau of Economic Research.
The Kansas State Board of Education's Quality Performance Accreditation system is described. Unlike past accreditation methods, which focused on the facilities or institutional characteristics, Quality Performance Accreditation accredits schools based on student performance.
Kansas State Board of Education (199). Kansas Quality Performance Accreditation. Topeka: Author.
PISA measures the performance of 15-year-old students in science, reading, and mathematics literacy every 3 years. PISA uses the term "literacy" in each subject area to indicate how well students are able to apply their knowledge and skills to problems in a real-life context.
Kastberg, D., Chan, J. Y., & Murray, G. (2016). Performance of US 15-Year-Old Students in Science, Reading, and Mathematics Literacy in an International Context: First Look at PISA 2015. NCES 2017-048. National Center for Education Statistics.
By focusing on clinical practice and what can be changed, this book offers suggestions for improvement of patient care and advises how clinical work can contribute directly and in new ways to the accumulation of knowledge.
Kazdin, A. E. (2000). Psychotherapy for children and adolescents: Directions for research and practice. Oxford University Press.
Now thoroughly updated in its second edition, acclaimed author Alan Kazdin's Single-Case Research Designs provides a notable contrast to the quantitative methodology approach that pervades the biological and social sciences.
Kazdin, A. E. (2011). Single-case research designs: Methods for clinical and applied settings. Oxford University Press.
The present study examined the effectiveness of two different school-home notes for increasing academic productivity and appropriate classroom behavior in five inattentive children.
Kelley, M. L., & McCain, A. P. (1995). Promoting academic performance in inattentive children: The relative efficacy of school-home notes with and without response cost. Behavior Modification, 19(3), 357-375.
This paper reviews measures of student performance that serve as early indicators of student academic difficulty.
Kennedy, M. M. (1999). Approximations to indicators of student outcomes. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis. Retrieved from http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.3102/01623737021004345
This report, produced by the National High School Center at the American Institutes for Research, outlines steps that schools can take to identify at-risk students and provide the necessary support systems and relevant interventions to assist students in obtaining a high school diploma.
Kennelly, L., & Monrad, M. (2007). Approaches to Dropout Prevention: Heeding Early Warning Signs with Appropriate Interventions. American Institutes for Research.
The current paper reviews empirical research describing assessment-based antecedent interventions implemented in natural settings. Descriptive information is provided along a number of dimensions pertaining to participant characteristics, assessment utilized, and intervention attributes
Kern, L., Choutka, C. M., & Sokol, N. G. (2002). Assessment-based antecedent interventions used in natural settings to reduce challenging behavior: An analysis of the literature. Education & Treatment of Children, 25(1), 113.
In this article, we describe analyses of assessment-based curricular modifications designed to improve the classroom behavior of elementary school students with emotional and behavioral disorders.
Kern, L., Delaney, B., Clarke, S., Dunlap, G., & Childs, K. (2001). Improving the classroom behavior of students with emotional and behavioral disorders using individualized curricular modifications. Journal of Emotional and behavioral Disorders, 9(4), 239-247.
his overview looks at the best available evidence on chronic student absenteeism in the context of the scale, the impact, impact multipliers, and interventions.
Keyworth, R., Detrich, R. & States, J. (2019). Overview of Chronic Student Absenteeism: A Significant and Overlooked Obstacle to Student Achievement. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/student-chronic-absenteeism
The authors examined the effects of task-sequencing variables on the academic performance of an 8-year-old severe stroke victim. Within a multiple baseline design, previously acquired (maintenance) task trials were systematically interspersed at designated points in treatment among new (acquisition) task trials.
Koegel, L. K., Koegel, L. K. (1990). The effects of interspersed maintenance tasks on academic performance in a severe childhood stroke victim. Journal of applied behavior analysis. 19. 425-30.
This study evaluated the generalization from high stakes tests to other mesures of achievement. The results suggest that there is little generalization suggesting that improvement in high stakes test scores are the result of emphasis placed on the tests and time spent in test preparation rather than actual increase in student learning.
Koretz, D. M. (1991). The Effects of High-Stakes Testing on Achievement: Preliminary Findings about Generalization across Tests. ERIC. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED340730.pdf
The research reported here investigated the effects of Maryland School Performance Assessment Program (MSPAP) by surveying teachers and principals in two of the three grades in which MSPAP is administered.
Koretz, D., Mitchell, K., Barron, S., & Keith, S. (1996). The perceived effects of the Maryland school performance assessment program. Los Angeles, CA: Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Assessment (University of California at Los Angeles).
Examined the effects of training in behavioral consultation (BEC) on school psychology graduate students and on client outcomes. 169 children (aged 3–11 yrs), 29 teachers/consultees, and 26 consultants participated.
Kratochwill, T. R., Elliott, S. N., & Busse, R. T. (1995). Behavior consultation: A five-year evaluation of consultant and client outcomes. School Psychology Quarterly, 10(2), 87.
This paper reviews school engagement as a predictor of later academic difficulty.
Ladd, G. W., & Dinella, L. M. (2009). Continuity and change in early school engagement: Predictive of children’s achievement trajectories from first to eighth grade. Journal of Educational Psychology. Retrieved from http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/2009-01936-007
This study examines the relationship between two dominant measures of teacher quality, teacher qualification and teacher effectiveness (measured by value-added modeling), in terms of their influence on students’ short-term academic growth and long-term educational success (measured by bachelor’s degree attainment).
Lee, S. W. (2018). Pulling back the curtain: Revealing the cumulative importance of high-performing, highly qualified teachers on students’ educational outcome. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 40(3), 359–381.
Presents a conceptual model of strong school-based interventions. It is suggested that all of these concepts must be practically utilized if strong interventions are to be applied to school problems. Suggestions and implications for school psychology practitioners are discussed.
Lentz Jr, F. E., Allen, S. J., & Ehrhardt, K. E. (1996). The conceptual elements of strong interventions in school settings. School Psychology Quarterly, 11(2), 118.
This chapter will review the issues and effects of externally managed behavioral procedures applied to the reduction of undesirable behavior of regular or mildly handicapped children in school settings.
Lentz, F. E. (1988). Reductive procedures. In Handbook of behavior therapy in education (pp. 439-468). Springer, Boston, MA.
The authors attempted to determine the prevalence of the extinction burst in applied research and its possible attenuation with other operant procedures.
Lerman, D. C., & Iwata, B. A. (1995). Prevalence of the extinction burst and its attenuation during treatment. Journal of applied behavior analysis, 28(1), 93-94.
Peer assessment has become a popular education intervention. A review of the literature finds few studies on the impact of Peer Review on student outcomes. This meta-analysis examines the effect sizes found in 58 studies.
Li, H., Xiong, Y., Hunter, C. V., Guo, X., & Tywoniw, R. (2020). Does peer assessment promote student learning? A meta-analysis. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 45(2), 193-211.
Using a randomized control trial in 11 Chinese primary schools, we studied the effects of pay-for-grades programs on academic cheating. We randomly assigned 82 classrooms into treatment or control conditions, and used a statistical algorithm to determine the occurrence of cheating.
Li, T., & Zhou, Y. (2019). Do Pay-for-Grades Programs Encourage Student Academic Cheating? Evidence from a Randomized Experiment. Frontiers of Education in China, 14(1), 117-137.
It is argued that there is a need to rethink the criteria by which the quality of educational assessments are judged and a set of criteria that are sensitive to some of the expectations for performancebased assessments are proposed
Linn, R. L., Baker, E. L., & Dunbar, S. B. (1991). Complex, performance-based assessment: Expectations and validation criteria. Educational researcher, 20(8), 15-21.
This experiment examined effects of road traffic noise and irrelevant speech on children's reading speed, reading comprehension, basic mathematics, and mathematical reasoning.
Ljung, R., Sorqvist, P., & Hygge, S. (2009). Effects of road traffic noise and irrelevant speech on children’s reading and mathematical performance. Noise and Health, 11(45), 194–198. https://doi.org/10.4103/1463-1741.56212
This is the twelfth edition of the Brown Center Report. Part I examines the latest data from state, national, or international assessments. This year the focus is on the latest results from the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) and Trends in International Math and Science Study (TIMSS) released in December, 2012. Part II explores a perennial theme in education studies—the topics that never seem to go away in terms of research and debate. This year it’s on the controversial topics of tracking and ability grouping. Part III is on a prominent policy or program. This year’s analysis is on the national push for eighth graders to take algebra and other high school math courses.
Loveless, T. (2013). How well are American students learning? With sections on the latest international tests, tracking and ability grouping, and advanced math in 8th grade. The 2013 Brown Center Report on American Education. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/2013-brown-center-report-web-3.pdf
This Brown Center Report (BCR) on American Education is the sixth and final edition in the third volume and the 16th issue overall. The series began in 2000. As in the past, the report comprises three studies. Also in keeping with tradition, the first section features recent results from state, national, or international assessments; the second section investigates a thematic topic in education, either by collecting new data or by analyzing existing empirical evidence in a novel way; and the third section looks at one or more education policies.
Loveless, T. (2017). How Well Are American Students Learning? With Sections on the Latest International test Scores, Foreign Exchange Students, and School Suspensions. The 2-17 Brown Center Report on American Education. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/2017-brown-center-report-on-american-education.pdf
This book provides effective techniques for pinpointing the causes of challenging behaviors, identifying alternate approached, and adapting instructional routines.
Luiselli, J. K., & Cameron, M. J. (Eds.). (1998). Antecedent control: Innovative approaches to behavioral support. Paul H Brookes Publishing Company.
The evidence in this paper suggest that schools can improve student learning by encouraging teachers and students to set their sights high.
Lumsden, L. S. (1997). Expectations for students.
This paper reviews important factors to consider when designing behavioral interventions based on the operant function of the behavior disorder. Considerations for intervention selection for the four major operant functions of behavior disorders (attention, tangibles, escape, and automatic reinforcement) are presented in the context of matching theory.
Mace, F. C., & Roberts, M. L. (1993). Factors affecting selection of behavioral interventions.
In this article, guidelines for evaluating the technical adequacy of that process are described. The guidelines highlight the interdependencies among assessment functions, subsumed by the goal of helping, and the role of structural factors (e.g., collaboration) in shaping the meaningfulness, appropriateness, and usefulness of the assessment-intervention process.
Macmann, G. M., Barnett, D. W., Allen, S. J., Bramlett, R. K., Hall, J. D., & Ehrhardt, K. E. (1996). Problem solving and intervention design: Guidelines for the evaluation of technical adequacy. School Psychology Quarterly, 11(2), 137.
This paper is an examination of the impact of high stakes testing on minority students. The outcomes suggest that high stakes testing does not have a positive impact on minority students and in some instances there is negative effects from high stakes testing.
Madaus, G. F., & Clarke, M. (2001). The Adverse Impact of High Stakes Testing on Minority Students: Evidence from 100 Years of Test Data. ERIC. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED450183.pdf
This programed text includes a self-test of its contents and demonstrates hoe to specify instructional objectives by behavior observable in a leraner, and how to write objectives, define desired terminal behavior, and state criteria of successful learning.
Mager, R. F. (1962). Preparing instructional objectives.
This study presents such an approach where the impact of regular and special education on 11 mildly handicapped children is studied by analyzing their slope of improvement on weekly curriculum-based measures (CBM) reading scores.
Marston, D. (1988). The effectiveness of special education: A time series analysis of reading performance in regular and special education settings. The Journal of Special Education, 21(4), 13-26.
there exists a serious need to examine alternative testing models for making educational decisions. in this chapter, this need is documented from the perspective that the traditional model has failed education in two major ways, from the technical level and from a social policy level. curriculum-based measurement procedures are proposed to redress some of the issues in these domains
Marston, D. B. (1989). A curriculum-based measurement approach to assessing academic performance: What it is and why do it. In M. R. Shinn (Ed.), The Guilford school practitioner series. Curriculum-based measurement: Assessing special children (pp. 18-78). New York, NY, US: Guilford Press.
In a series of two studies, the relative sensitivity of traditional standardized achievement tests and alternative curriculum-based measures was assessed.
Marston, D., Fuchs, L. S., & Deno, S. L. (1986). Measuring pupil progress: A comparison of standardized achievement tests and curriculum-related measures. Diagnostique, 11(2), 77-90.
Characterizes classroom instruction (CRI) from a behavior analytic perspective. It is argued that effective teaching strategies also serve managerial functions through the development of stimulus control and the management of behavioral choice.
Martens, B. K., & Kelly, S. Q. (1993). A behavioral analysis of effective teaching. School Psychology Quarterly, 8(1), 10.
This paper discusses the benefits of using brief experimental analyses to aid in treatment selection, identifies the forms of treatment that are most appropriate for this type of analysis, and describes key design elements for comparing 2 or more treatments efficiently.
Martens, B. K., Eckert, T. L., Bradley, T. A., & Ardoin, S. P. (1999). Identifying effective treatments from a brief experimental analysis: Using single-case design elements to aid decision making. School Psychology Quarterly, 14(2), 163.
The authors examined the effects of goal setting and feedback applied to teacher behavior as a means of producing desired changes in students' behavior during consultation.
Martens, B. K., Hiralall, A. S., & Bradley, T. A. (1997). A note to teacher: Improving student behavior through goal setting and feedback. School Psychology Quarterly, 12(1), 33.
This study investigated the relationship between classroom seating arrangements and the
question-asking of fourth-graders.
Marx, A., Fuhrer, U., & Hartig, T. (1999). Effects of classroom seating arrangements on children’s question-asking. Learning Environments Research, 2(3), 249–263.
Extending adult findings, this study assessed whether moderate multi-talker noise promotes children’s creativity and whether this is modulated by children’s age, working memory, and selective attention.
Massonnié, J., Rogers, C. J., Mareschal, D., & Kirkham, N. Z. (2019). Is classroom noise always bad for children? The contribution of age and selective attention to creative performance in noise. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00381
Mayer, G. R. (1995). Preventing antisocial behavior in the schools. Journal of applied behavior analysis, 28(4), 467-478.
In this study, we conducted an analysis of the reinforcement and extinction components of DRO while treating the self-injury of 3 women with developmental disabilities.
Mazaleski, J. L., Iwata, B. A., Vollmer, T. R., Zarcone, J. R., & Smith, R. G. (1993). Analysis of the reinforcement and extinction components in DRO contingencies with self‐injury. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 26(2), 143-156.
This paper presents two studies of factors affecting developmental outcomes of young children exposed prenatally to drugs and alcohol.
McConnell, S. R., Rush, K. L., McEvoy, M. A., Carta, J., Atwater, J., & Williams, R. (2002). Descriptive and experimental analysis of child-caregiver interactions that promote development of young children exposed prenatally to drugs and alcohol. Journal of Behavioral Education, 11(3), 131-161.
We examined the effect of a teaching method on skill fluency and on-task endurance of a 9-year-old boy who had been diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
McDowell, C., & Keenan, M. (2001). Developing fluency and endurance in a child diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 34(3), 345-348.
Suggests that R. Herrnstein's (1970) mathematical statement of the law of effect improves on Skinner's view of reinforcement by asserting (a) that response rate varies hyperbolically with reinforcement rate and (b) that responding is governed not only by reinforcement obtained for responding but also by reinforcement obtained from all other concurrent sources.
McDowell, J. J. (1982). The importance of Herrnstein's mathematical statement of the law of effect for behavior therapy. American Psychologist, 37(7), 771.
This study examined the extent to which competence in applying behavioral procedures (timeout from positive reinforcement) was sufficient to establish competence in teaching others to apply the same procedures.
McGimsey, J. F., Greene, B. F., & Lutzker, J. R. (1995). Competence in aspects of behavioral treatment and consultation: Implications for service delivery and graduate training. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 28(3), 301-315.
The study investigates the correlation and predictive value of curriculum-based measurement (CBM) against the Michigan Educational Assessment Program's (MEAP) fourth grade reading assessment.
McGlinchey, M. T., & Hixson, M. D. (2004). Using curriculum-based measurement to predict performance on state assessments in reading. School Psychology Review, 33, 193-203.
this chapter is based on the following premise: that variables operative in the classroom environment, such as the specific behaviors of the teacher and the manner in which the classroom is arranged (e.g., seating arrangement, noise level), influence student behavior and student learning
McKee, W. T., & Witt, J. C. (1990). Effective teaching: A review of instructional and environmental variables.
This paper examines how ambient noise, an important environmental variable, can affect creativity.
Mehta, R., Zhu, R. J., and Cheema, A. (2012). Is noise always bad? Exploring the effects of ambient noise on creative cognition. Journal of Consumer Research, 39(4), 784–799. https://doi.org/10.1086/665048
Effects of two curricular and materials modifications on the on-task behavior and correct academic responding of three elementary-aged students identified with emotional or behavioral disorders (E/BD) were evaluated in two separate studies.
Miller, K. A., Gunter, P. L., Venn, M. L., Hummel, J., & Wiley, L. P. (2003). Effects of curricular and materials modifications on academic performance and task engagement of three students with emotional or behavioral disorders. Behavioral Disorders, 28(2), 130-149.
This study evaluated the effect data from end of course exams had on teacher practices in history instruction. In general, the teachers supported the changes but were reluctant to change their instructional practices.
Mueller, R. G. W., & Colley, L. M. (2015). An evaluation of the impact of end-of-course exams and ACT-QualityCore on US history instruction in a Kentucky high school. The Journal of Social Studies Research. Retrieved from http://www.academia.edu/download/41700187/JSSR.pdf
This article describe about the drop down of SAT score in 2016.
Mulhere, K. (2016, September). SAT Scores Take a Dip. Money. Retrieved from http://money.com/money/4508286/average-sat-scores-class-2016/
This report attempts to summarize the most important and interesting trends emerging from TIMSS across the past two decades. The report is organized from macro to micro perspectives. The first chapter provides an overview of student achievement worldwide. The second and third chapters explore curriculum and instruction. The fourth and fifth chapters narrow the focus to two topics of interest among policymakers.
Mullis, I. V., Martin, M. O., & Loveless, T. (20). years of TIMSS: International trends in mathematics and science achievement, curriculum, and instruction. TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center, Lynch School of Education, Boston College and International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA).
The purpose of this paper is to review studies that have used instructional variables as nonaversive interventionsfor problem behaviors.
Munk, D. D., & Repp, A. C. (1994). The relationship between instructional variables and problem behavior: A review. Exceptional children, 60(5), 390-401.
This report examines the educational progress and challenges students face in the United States by race/ethnicity. This report shows that, over time, students in the racial/ethnic groups of White, Black, Hispanic, Asian, Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, American Indian/Alaska Native, and Two or more races have completed high school and continued their education in college in increasing numbers. Despite these gains, the rate of progress has varied among these racial/ethnic groups and differences by race/ethnicity persist in terms of increases in attainment and progress on key indicators of educational performance.
Musu-Gillette, L., Robinson, J., McFarland, J., KewalRamani, A., Zhang, A., & Wilkinson-Flicker, S. (2016). Status and Trends in the Education of Racial and Ethnic Groups 2016. NCES 2016-007. National Center for Education Statistics.
This non-technical brochure provides introductory information on the development, administration, scoring, and reporting of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). The brochure also provides information about the online resources available on the NAEP website.
National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). (2010a). An introduction to NAEP. (NCES 2010-468). Retrieved from National Center for Education Statistics website: https://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2010468
Nationally representative samples of 209,000 fourth-graders and 175,200 eighth-graders participated in the 2011 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in mathematics.
National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). (2011d). The nation’s report card: mathematics 2011. (NCES 2012-458). Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/ pdf/main2011/2012458.pdf
This report is concerned with only one of the many causes and dimensions of the problem, but it is the one that undergirds American prosperity, security, and civility.
National Commission on Excellence in Educatio. (1984). A nation at Risk: The full Account. Cambridge, MA: USA Research.
This paper is designed to help educators understand research findings on promising interventions for students with a history of behavior problems. It reviews programs for preventing such problems from recurring among children and adolescents with chronic antisocial behavior.
National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities (1999). Interventions for Chronic Behavior Problems. Washington, DC: Author.
This document updates a set of voluntary school leadership standards first developed in 1996, then revised in 2008 and long known by the initials of the creator of the original document, ISLLC. The 2015 document differs from its predecessors by focusing more strongly and clearly on students and student learning.
National Policy Board for Educational Administration. (2015). Professional standards for educational leaders 2015.
The paper examines Campbell’s law-the more any quantitative social indicator is used for social decision making the more likely the measure will corrupt the social processes it is intended to monitor.” In education, high stakes testing has resulted in widespread cheating, exclusion from low performing students from testing, encouraging students to drop out, and narrowing the curriculum.
Nichols, S. L., & Berliner, D. C. (2005). The Inevitable Corruption of Indicators and Educators through High-Stakes Testing. Education Policy Research Unit. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED508483.pdf
This study evaluated the relationship between increased accountability via high stakes testing and progress on other measures of educational progress. The results suggests that high stakes testing does not have any positive impact on student achievement.
Nichols, S. L., Glass, G. V., & Berliner, D. C. (2006). High-stakes testing and student achievement: Does accountability pressure increase student learning. education policy analysis …. Retrieved from http://epaa.asu.edu/ojs/index.php/epaa/article/download/72/198
This synthesis is described under the rubric of functional outcome analysis (FOA) and is organized around an examination of classroom resources. Various methods of assessing intervention costs and benefits, as well as their distribution, are described.
Noell, G. H., & Gresham, F. M. (1993). Functional outcome analysis: Do the benefits of consultation and prereferral intervention justify the costs?. School Psychology Quarterly, 8(3), 200.
This study examined three strategies for assessing compliance in students (aged 5 yrs) whose speech and language development were delayed.
Noell, G. H., VanDerHeyden, A. M., Gatti, S. L., & Whitmarsh, E. L. (2001). Functional assessment of the effects of escape and attention on students' compliance during instruction. School Psychology Quarterly, 16(3), 253.
This study compared two strategies for increasing accurate responding on a low-preference academic task by interspersing presentations of a preferred academic task.
Noell, G. H., Whitmarsh, E. L., VanDerHeyden, A. M., Gatti, S. L., & Slider, N. J. (2003). Sequencing instructional tasks: A comparison of contingent and noncontingent interspersal of preferred academic tasks. Behavior modification, 27(2), 191-216.
The usefulness of functional analysis procedures for the assessment and treatment of behaviors associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder has been the subject of a number of recent investigations. This article provides a selected review of recent studies and examines potential implications for practice.
Northup, J., & Gulley, V. (2001). Some Contributions of Functional Analysis to the Assessment of Behaviors Associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and the Effects of Stimulant Medication. School Psychology Review, 30(2).
This article describes a school-wide system of early identification and intervention for children placed at risk for school success and discusses how schools might implement the recommendations offered in the literature.
O'Shaughnessy, T. E., Lane, K. L., Gresham, F. M., & Beebe-Frankenberger, M. E. (2003). Children placed at risk for learning and behavioral difficulties: Implementing a school-wide system of early identification and intervention. Remedial and Special Education, 24(1), 27-35.
This study evaluated the effects of high stakes test such as end of course exams at the level of a school district. Across the six states included in the study the effects were mixed. In general the more developed the system was the better the effects but this was not always the case.
Opfer, V. D., Henry, G. T., & Mashburn, A. J. (2008). The district effect: Systemic responses to high stakes accountability policies in six southern states. American Journal of Education, 114(2), 299-332. Retrieved from http://www.darleenopfer.com/File/aje final.pdf
This is our most widely adopted classroom management book. It provides an overview of what teaching is all about—focusing on the important management skills every teacher needs. The authors stress that these procedures will help prevent problem behaviors, keep students on task, and make the best use of everyone's time and energy.
Paine, S. C. (1983). Structuring your classroom for academic success. Research PressPub.
In 1986, the senior author called attention to the possibility of transferring behavioral technologies to the larger culture for the benefit of that culture. The present paper is an attempt to supplement that presentation with a set of proposals that were at best implicit and were perhaps missing entirely from the earlier effort.
Pennypacker, H. S., & Hench, L. L. (1997). Making behavioral technology transferable. The Behavior Analyst, 20(2), 97-108.
With an unprecedented data set, Stanford researchers review more than 200 million test scores to spotlight communities with the nation’s worst academic achievement gaps. The research also revealed that nearly all U.S. school districts with substantial minority populations have large achievement gaps between their white and black and white and Hispanic students.
Rabinovitz, J. (2016). Local education inequities across US revealed in new Stanford data set. Retrieved from Stanford News website http://news. stanford. edu/2016/04/29/local-education-inequities-across-us-revealed-newstanford-data-set.
In this paper, we analyze racial differences in the math section of the general SAT test, using publicly available College Board population data for all of the nearly 1.7 million college-bound seniors in 2015 who took the SAT. The evidence for a stubborn race gap on this test does meanwhile provide a snapshot into the extraordinary magnitude of racial inequality in contemporary American society. Standardized tests are often seen as mechanisms for meritocracy, ensuring fairness in terms of access. But test scores reflect accumulated advantages and disadvantages in each day of life up the one on which the test is taken. Race gaps on the SAT hold up a mirror to racial inequities in society as a whole. Equalizing educational opportunities and human capital acquisition earlier is the only way to ensure fairer outcomes.
Reeves, R. V., Halikias, D. (2017). Race Gap in SAT scores highlight inequality and Hinder Upward Mobility. Brookings. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/research/race-gaps-in-sat-scores-highlight-inequality-and-hinder-upward-mobility/
This article show the evidence for a race gap on the SAT math score and some big issues at stake including: the value of the SAT itself; the case for broader policies to take into account socioeconomic background in college admissions; the obsession with four-year college degrees; and the danger of college as a “bottleneck” in the American opportunity structure.
Reeves, Richard. (2017, February). Race Gap in SAT Math Score are as big as Ever. Brown Center Chalkboard. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/blog/brown-center-chalkboard/2017/02/01/race-gaps-in-sat-math-scores-are-as-big-as-ever/
Presents a summary of the research that resulted in the development of organizational behavior management (OBM) as a specialty area as well as its procedural technology. The relationship of OBM to other supervisory and management approaches that are common in the human services is described.
Reid, D. H., & Parsons, M. B. (2000). Organizational behavior management in human service settings.
This study evaulated curriculum-based measures of oral reading as early predicors of overall reading achievement.
Reschly, A. L., Busch, T. W., Betts, J., Deno, S. L., & Long, J. D. (2009). Curriculum-Based Measurement Oral Reading as an indicator of reading achievement: A meta-analysis of the correlational evidence. Journal of School Psychology, 47(6), 427-469. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsp.2009.07.001
An alternating treatments design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational program that combined timings (via chess clocks), peer tutoring (i.e., peer-delivered immediate feedback), positive-practice overcorrection, and performance feedback on mathematics fluency (i.e., speed of accurate responding) in four elementary students with mathematics skills deficits.
Rhymer, K. N., Dittmer, K. I., Skinner, C. H., & Jackson, B. (2000). Effectiveness of a multi-component treatment for improving mathematics fluency. School Psychology Quarterly, 15(1), 40.
This paper disentangles the impact of schools and teachers in influencing achievement with special attention given to the potential problems of omitted or mismeasured variables and of student and school selection.
Rivkin, S. G., Hanushek, E. A., & Kain, J. F. (2005). Teachers, schools, and academic achievement. Econometrica, 73(2), 417-458.
This study investigated the effectiveness and efficiency of a 4-second time delay instructional package and language of instruction with regard to the percentage correct of English sight words and incidental information by 4 Puerto Rican middle school students with mental retardation.
Rohena, E. I., Jitendra, A. K., & Browder, D. M. (2002). Comparison of the effects of Spanish and English constant time delay instruction on sight word reading by Hispanic learners with mental retardation. The Journal of Special Education, 36(3), 171-186.
This research considers relationships between student achievement (knowledge and cognitive skill), teacher efficacy (Gibson & Dembo, 1984), and interactions with assigned coaches (self-report measures) in a sample of 18 grade 7 and 8 history teachers in 36 classes implementing a specific innovation with the help of 6 coaches.
Ross, J. A. (1992). Teacher efficacy and the effects of coaching on student achievement. Canadian Journal of Education, 17(1), 51–65.
The present paper discusses three design options potentially useful for the investigation of response maintenance. These include: (a) the sequential-withdrawal, (b) the partial-withdrawal, and (c) the partial-sequential withdrawal designs. Each design is illustrated and potential limitations are discussed.
Rusch, F. R., & Kazdin, A. E. (1981). Toward a methodology of withdrawal designs for the assessment of response maintenance. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 14(2), 131-140.
The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate a series of program variables used to modify the time a subject spent attending in an experimental restaurant setting.
Rusch, F. R., Connis, R. T., & Sowers, J. A. (1978). The modification and maintenance of time spent attending using social reinforcement, token reinforcement and response cost in an applied restaurant setting. Journal of Special Education Technology, 2(1), 18-26.
In this study the authors evaluate the value of self and peer grading.
Sadler, P. M., & Good, E. (2006). The impact of self-and peer-grading on student learning. Educational assessment. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1207/s15326977ea1101_1
In an experimental assessment of a choral responding procedure for increasing children's response to teacher commands, decreased levels of off-task behavior, as well as increased levels of correct responding, resulted from the procedures for three handicapped preschool children during large group instruction.
Sainato, D. M., Strain, P. S., & Lyon, S. R. (1987). Increasing academic responding of handicapped preschool children during group instruction. Journal of the Division for Early Childhood, 12(1), 23-30.
This study examined the effects of a self-evaluation treatment package on the independent work skills of preschool children with disabilities.
Sainato, D. M., Strain, P. S., Lefebvre, D., & Rapp, N. (1990). Effects of self-evaluation on the independent work skills of preschool children with disabilities. Exceptional Children, 56(6), 540-549.
The authors conducted descriptive and experimental analyses of aberrant behavior in school settings with 2 children with autism, using teachers as assessors. Experimental functional analyses carried out by the investigators were followed by training teachers to conduct a descriptive analysis and a classroom experimental analysis.
Sasso, G. M., Reimers, T. M., Cooper, L. J., Wacker, D., Berg, W., Steege, M., ... & Allaire, A. (1992). Use of descriptive and experimental analyses to identify the functional properties of aberrant behavior in school settings. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 25(4), 809-821.
This table allows you to compare a student’s SAT® scores with the performance of other 2012 college-bound seniors who took the test some time in high school. Please keep in mind that relationships between test scores and other factors are complex and interdependent. Other factors do not directly affect test performance; rather, they are associated with educational experiences both on tests and in schoolwork.
SAT® Percentile Ranks for 2012 College-Bound Seniors: Critical Reading, Mathematics and Writing Percentile Ranks by Gender and Ethnic Groups. (2012). The College Board. Retrieved from http://secure-media.collegeboard.org/digitalServices/pdf/research/SAT-Percentile-Ranks-by-Gender-Ethnicity-2012.pdf
This article provides an overview of contextual factors across the levels of an educational system that influence implementation.
Schaughency, E., & Ervin, R. (2006). Building Capacity to Implement and Sustain Effective Practices to Better Serve Children. School Psychology Review, 35(2), 155-166. Retrieved from http://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ788242
This paper highlight the important of effective feedback to help educators grow and allow students to improve. . This paper identify a definition of effective feedback and the key attributes of effective feedback.
Schimmer, T. (2018). The Nonnegotiable Attributes of Effective Feedback. Retrieved from https://fs24.formsite.com/edweek/form509/fill?7=EDWEEKBOX
Examined the effects of free vs integrated seating arrangements with 5 junior high Native American students in a class composed of 24 students.
Schmidt, R. E., Stewart, J. P., & McLaughlin, T. F. (1987). Effects of two classroom seating arrangements on classroom participation and academic responding with Native American junior high school students. Techniques, 3(3), 172–180. https://psycnet.apa.org/record/1988-27980-001
In this paper, student-level indicators of opportunity to learn (OTL) included in the 2012 Programme for International Student Assessment are used to explore the joint relationship of OTL and socioeconomic status (SES) to student mathematics literacy. This paper suggest that in most countries, the organization and policies defining content exposure may exacerbate educational inequalities.
Schmidt, W. H., Burroughs, N. A., Zoido, P., & Houang, R. T. (2015). The role of schooling in perpetuating educational inequality: An international perspective. Educational Researcher, 44(7), 371-386.
Schoenwald, S. K., & Hoagwood, K. (2001). Effectiveness, transportability, and dissemination of interventions: What matters when?. Psychiatric services, 52(9), 1190-1197.
This article describes an innovative teaching model designed to impact students at risk with the cooperative efforts of regular and special education in Grades K-3.
Self, H., Benning, A., Marston, D., & Magnusson, D. (1991). Cooperative teaching project: A model for students at risk. Exceptional Children, 58(1), 26-34.
This popular practitioner guide and text presents an effective, problem-solving-based approach to evaluating and remediating academic skills problems. The author provides practical strategies for working with students across all grade levels (K–12) who are struggling with reading, spelling, written language, or math.
Shapiro, E. S. (2011). Academic skills problems: Direct assessment and intervention. Guilford Press.
The assessment of children and adolescents from a behavioral perspective has evolved into a state-of-the-art practice among school professionals. this landmark text was the first to address systematically the issues involved in developing behavioral assessment strategies for educational-rather than clinical-settings.
Shapiro, E. S., & Kratochwill, T. R. (Eds.). (2000). Behavioral assessment in schools: Theory, research, and clinical foundations. Guilford Press.
Part of the president Bush strategy for the transformation of "American Schools" lies in an accountability system that would track progress toward the nation's education goals as well as provide the impetus for reform. Here we focus primarily on issues of accountability and student achievement.
Shavelson, R. J., Baxter, G. P., & Pine, J. (1992). Research news and comment: Performance assessments: Political rhetoric and measurement reality. Educational Researcher, 21(4), 22-27.
In today's political climate, standardized tests are inadequate and misleading as achievement measures. Educators should employ a variety of measures, improve standardized test content and format, and remove incentives for teaching to the test. Focusing on raising test scores distorts instruction and renders scores less credible. Includes 13 references.
Shepard, L. A. (1989). Why We Need Better Assessments. Educational leadership, 46(7), 4-9.
Used a multiple baseline design to evaluate teacher-only consultation (TOC) and conjoint behavioral consultation (CBC) in their ability to produce cross-setting behavioral change in the social initiations (SIs) of 4 withdrawn children (aged 9–12 yrs). Direct observation, rating scale, and self-report data were collected from various sources across settings.
Sheridan, S. M., Kratochwill, T. R., & Elliott, S. N. (1990). Behavioral consultation with parents and teachers: Delivering treatment for socially withdrawn children at home and school. School Psychology Review.
Shinn, M. R. (1995). Best practices in curriculum-based measurement and its use in a problem-solving model. Best practices in school psychology III, 547-567.
The purpose of this chapter is to understand the reasons why categorical assessment and identification for students with severe achievement needs is indefensible. Then, to provide a viable alternative to expedite the assessment and decisionmaking process of educators when they are confronted with students with severe achievement needs
Shinn, M., Good, R., & Parker, C. (1998). Noncategorical special education services with students with severe achievement deficits. Functional and noncategorical identification and intervention in special education, 65-83.
The authors examined the effectiveness of functional communication training (FCT) in reducing self-injurious behavior (SIB) and in shaping an alternative (communicative) response while SIB continued to be reinforced.
Shirley, M. J., Iwata, B. A., Kahng, S., Mazaleski, J. L., & Lerman, D. C. (1997). Does functional communication training compete with ongoing contingencies of reinforcement? An analysis during response acquisition and maintenance. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 30(1), 93-104.
The concept of reinforcer substitutability proposes a continuum of interactions among reinforcers in a given situation. At one end of this continuum, reinforcers are substitutable, with one reinforcer being readily traded for another. The authors conducted an analysis of reinforcers that were substitutable with those produced by self-injurious behavior (SIB).
Shore, B. A., Iwata, B. A., DeLeon, I. G., Kahng, S., & Smith, R. G. (1997). An analysis of reinforcer substitutability using object manipulation and self‐injury as competing responses. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 30(1), 21-41.
Discussing the major themes of replication, variability, and experimental design, Sidman describes the step-by-step planning of experiments, the need for constant attention to trends of incoming data, and the alteration of plan, method, or design that those trends sometimes make necessary
Sidman, M. (1960). Tactics of Scientific Research: Evaluating Experimental Data in Psychology. Boston: Authors Cooperative.
The authors evaluated an intervention package for increasing requesting opportunities in special education classrooms. This study demonstrated an effective strategy for helping teachers incorporate opportunities for functional communication into the natural environment.
Sigafoos, J., Kerr, M., Roberts, D., & Couzens, D. (1994). Increasing opportunities for requesting in classrooms serving children with developmental disabilities. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 24(5), 631-645.
This paper discusses the nature of the crises in the college classroom. An identity crisis affects virtually all Americans in one way or another, but especially college student.
Silverman, C. (1970). Crisis in the classroom: The remaking of American education. New York: Vintage.
This study analyzed the magnitude of experimental intervention outcomes as a function of violations in internal and external validity for studies that included students with learning disabilities.
Simmerman, S., & Swanson, H. L. (2001). Treatment outcomes for students with learning disabilities: How important are internal and external validity?. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 34(3), 221-236.
The case history in scientific method cited is autobiographical; Skinner relates certain relevant experiences in the development of some of his scientific contributions.
Skinner, B. F. (1956). A case history in scientific method. American Psychologist, 11(5), 221.
This paper describes several procedures that have been shown to improve learning rates without increasing time allocated for instruction during both teacher-led instruction and independent seat-work. In the description of interventions, they emphasize the learning mechanisms that may be operating to improve student achievement.
Skinner, C. H., Fletcher, P. A., & Henington, C. (1996). Increasing learning rates by increasing student response rates: A summary of research. School Psychology Quarterly, 11(4), 313.
Alternating treatments designs were used to compare on-task levels in 4 students diagnosed as emotionally disturbed while working on control and experimental independent seat-work mathematics assignments. Control and experimental assignments were similar except experimental assignments contained additional briefer mathematics problems interspersed following every third problem.
Skinner, C. H., Hurst, K. L., Teeple, D. F., & Meadows, S. O. (2002). Increasing on‐task behavior during mathematics independent seat‐work in students with emotional disturbance by interspersing additional brief problems. Psychology in the Schools, 39(6), 647-659.
For over fifteen years, it has been conventional wisdom that disadvantaged students fall behind their advantaged peers during summer breaks. Correlational research appears to support this conclusion, Wing Institute Data Mining.
Slavin, R. (2020). The Summer Slide: Fact or Fiction? Baltimore, MD.: Bet Evidence Encyclopedia. https://robertslavinsblog.wordpress.com/2020/08/20/the-summer-slide-fact-or-fiction/
This Campbell systematic review examines the impact of class size on academic achievement. The review summarises findings from 148 reports from 41 countries. Ten studies were included in the meta‐analysis.
Slavin, R. E., Lake, C., Inns, A., Baye, A., Dachet, D., & Haslam, J. (2019). A Quantitative Synthesis of Research on Writing Approaches in Grades 2 to 12. Best Evidence Encyclopedia.
This article pointing some findings about achievement gap within school.
Sparks, S. D. (2015). Studies Probe How Schools Widen Achievement Gaps. Education Week. Retrieved from https://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2015/10/07/schools-help-widen-academic-gaps-studies-find.html
This study evaluated an alternative method of identifying early reading difficulty. L. S. Fuchs and D. Fuchs (1998) proposed that academic problems could be indexed by a dual discrepancy on level and slope of performance, relative to classmates, on curriculum-based measurement tasks.
Speece, D. L., & Case, L. P. (2001). Classification in context: An alternative approach to identifying early reading disability. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93(4), 735.
The title of the address is " Ensuring Teaching and Learning in the 21st Century: What We Know and What We Need to Know From Research." The focus is on the plight of children. The author believes a partial solution is integrated comprehensive school-linked services.
Stallings, J. A. (1995). Ensuring teaching and learning in the 21st century. Educational Researcher, 24(6), 4-8.
This investigation contributed to previous research by separating the effects of simply making instructional changes, not based on student performance data, from the effects of making instructional changes in accordance with CBM data.
Stecker, P. M. (1995). Effects of instructional modifications with and without curriculum-based measurement on the mathematics achievement of students with mild disabilities.
Response to Intervention depends on regular, routine monitoring of student progress. This paper describes a multi-component approach to monitoring progress.
Stecker, P. M., Fuchs, D., & Fuchs, L. S. (2008). Progress Monitoring as Essential Practice Within Response to Intervention. Rural Special Education Quarterly, 27(4), 10-17.
This article reviews the efficacy of curriculum-based measurement as a methodology for enhancing student achievement in reading and math. Variables that contribute to the benefit of curriculum-based measurement are discussed.
Stecker, P. M., Fuchs, L. S., & Fuchs, D. (2005). Using Curriculum-Based Measurement to Improve Student Achievement: Review of Research. Psychology in the Schools, 42(8), 795-819.
The authors propose a model for using curriculum-based measurement to monitor and improve student achievement.
Stecker, P. M., Lembke, E. S., & Foegen, A. (2008). Using Progress-Monitoring Data to Improve Instructional Decision Making. Preventing School Failure, 52(2), 48-58.
The purpose of this document is to provide background information that will be useful in interpreting the 2007 results from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) by comparing its design, features, framework, and items with those of the U.S. National Assessment of Educational Progress and another international assessment in which the United States participates, the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA). The report found, because there are differences in the features, frameworks and items of the national and international assessments, direct comparisons among the assessments are not useful. Rather the results from different studies should be thought of as different lenses through which to view and better understand U.S. student performance.
Stephens, M., and Coleman, M. (2007). Comparing TIMSS with NAEP and PISA in Mathematics and Science. U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved from
This document provide background information that will be useful in interpreting the results from two key international assessments that are being released in November and December 2007 and in comparing these results with recent findings from the U.S. National Assessment of Educational Progress in similar subjects. In sum, there appears to be an advantage in capitalizing on the complementary information presented in national and international assessments. NAEP measures in detail the reading, mathematics and science knowledge of U.S. students as a whole, and can also provide trend information for individual states, different geographic regions, and demographic population groups. International assessments like PIRLS and PISA add value by providing a method for comparing our performance in the United States to the performance of students in other nations. However, their differences need to be recognized when interpreting results.
Stephens, M., Coleman, M. (2007). Comparing PIRLS and PISA with NAEP in Reading, Mathematics, and Science (Working Paper). U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved from https://nces.ed.gov/surveys/PISA/pdf/comppaper12082004.pdf
This study compared indirect training and direct training methods as a means of impacting levels of treatment integrity. Direct training methods produced better outcomes.
Sterling-Turner, H. E., Watson, T. S., & Moore, J. W. (2002). The effects of direct training and treatment integrity on treatment outcomes in school consultation. School Psychology Quarterly, 17(1).
The classroom assessment procedures o f 36 teachers in grades 2 to 12 were studied in depth to determine the extent to which they measure students” higher order thinking skills in mathematics, science, social studies, and language arts.
Stiggins, RJ., Griswald, M., & Green, K. R. (1988). Measuring Thinking Skills Through Classroom Assessment. Paper presented at the 1988 annual meeting of the National Council on Measurement in Education, New Orleans, April.
In Part 1 of this 2-part article, the authors present historical, contextual, and methodological perspectives on the use of empirically supported interventions in school and community settings.
Stoiber, K. C., & Kratochwill, T. R. (2000). Empirically supported interventions and school psychology: Rationale and methodological issues—Part I. School Psychology Quarterly, 15(1), 75.
Four normal and four deviant children aged four-to-six years were taught to judge the quality of their academic work in a preschool classroom, and to prompt or cue their teachers to comment about the quality of that work.
Stokes, T. F., Fowler, S. A., & Baer, D. M. (1978). TRAINING PRESCHOOL CHILDREN TO RECRUIT NATURAL COMMUNITIES OF REINFORCEMENT 1. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 11(2), 285-303.
This paper examines the use of high stakes testing such as end of course exams in American education. The conclusions are that the exams do not produce substantive changes in instructional practices and the information is useful to measure school and system progress but has limited utility for instructional guidance.
Supovitz, J. (2009). Can high stakes testing leverage educational improvement? Prospects from the last decade of testing and accountability reform. Journal of Educational Change, 10(2-3), 211-227.
The purpose of this article is to review the literature and examine the effect of increased opportunities to respond to academic requests (OTR) on academic and behavioral outcomes of students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD).
Sutherland, K. S., & Wehby, J. H. (2001). Exploring the relationship between increased opportunities to respond to academic requests and the academic and behavioral outcomes of students with EBD: A review. Remedial and Special Education, 22(2), 113-121.
This meta-analysis examines the impact of team-based learning strategies on achievement and student engagement. The study finds that team-based strategies were found to have a positive impact on grades, test performance, and engagement.
Swanson, E., McCulley, L. V., Osman, D. J., Scammacca Lewis, N., & Solis, M. (2017). The effect of team-based learning on content knowledge: A meta-analysis. Active Learning in Higher Education, 1469787417731201.
This article summarizes a comprehensive synthesis of experimental intervention studies that have included students with learning disabilities
Swanson, H. L., & Hoskyn, M. (1998). Experimental intervention research on students with learning disabilities: A meta-analysis of treatment outcomes. Review of Educational Research, 68(3), 277-321.
We examined whether, as predicted by research on child effects, we could generate hypotheses about the function of student problem behavior by observing the amount of attention teachers provided to students.
Taylor, J. C., & Romanczyk, R. G. (1994). Generating hypotheses about the function of student problem behavior by observing teacher behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 27(2), 251-265.
This report compares the performance of U.S. students with their peers around the world and also examines how the reading literacy of U.S. 4th-grade students has changed since the first administration of PIRLS in 2001- 2006. Results are presented by two student characteristics (sex and race/ethnicity) and by one measure of school poverty (percent of students in the school eligible for free or reduced price lunch). All differences described in this report are statistically significant at the .05 level. No statistical adjustments to account for multiple comparisons were used.
Thompson, S., Provasnik, S., Kastberg, D., Ferraro, D., Lemanski, N., Roey, S., & Jenkins, F. (2012). Highlights from PIRLS 2011: Reading Achievement of US Fourth-Grade Students in an International Context. NCES 2013-010. National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED537758.pdf
This chapter presents four sets of interrelated discussions. The rationale for and critical components underlying a problem-solving system; The concept of educational disability is clarified; Current and potential alternate processes of conferring educational disability status are considered; The implications of implementing a functional and noncategorical system are examined in relation to federal legal requirements.
Tilly, W. D., Reschly, D. J., & Grimes, J. (1999). Disability determination in problem solving systems: Conceptual foundations and critical components. Special education in transition: Functional assessment and noncategorical programming, 221-251.
This article show different approach that researcher took to answer questions on social gradient in education between the countries. Comparing some of these results highlights weak service delivery in many developing countries. Even where resources may be similar, social gradients are steep in some, indicating much worse educational outcomes for the poor. And public resources are often extremely poorly converted into learning. The differential ability of schools and school systems to convert resources into learning outcomes remains a major impediment to improving educational outcomes, and indeed life chances, for the poor.
Van Der Berg, S. (2015). How does the rich-poor learning gap vary across countries?. Brookings Institution. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/blog/future-development/2015/03/09/how-does-the-rich-poor-learning-gap-vary-across-countries/
practitioners of behavior management & students who are just learning the basics of applied behavior analysis will find this new edition packed with useful information from the original version
Van Houten, R., & Hall, R. V. (2001). The measurement of behavior: Behavior modification. Pro-ed.
The goal of this study was to develop a brief assessment that could be conducted in the natural setting to identify naturally occurring, high-frequency subsequent events that may serve as maintaining consequences for disruptive behavior using the entire class as the unit of analysis. Procedures were conducted in two early childhood classrooms during regularly scheduled classroom activities.
VanDerHeyden, A. M., Witt, J. C., & Gatti, S. (2001). Descriptive Assessment Method to Reduce Overall Disruptive Behavior in a Preschool Classroom. School Psychology Review, 30(4).
This article describes efforts to examine the validity of a screening process that provides objective data for multidisciplinary team meetings where consideration is being given to teacher referral of a student for assessment and possible placement in special education.
VanDerHeyden, A. M., Witt, J. C., & Naquin, G. (2003). Development and validation of a process for screening referrals to special education. School Psychology Review, 32(2), 204-227.
Reading impaired first graders were given daily tutoring as a "first cut" diagnostic to aid in distinguishing between reading difficulties caused by basic cognitive deficits and those caused by experiential deficits. Reading achievement in most of these children was found to be within or above the average range after one semester of remediation.
Vellutino, F. R., Scanlon, D. M., Sipay, E. R., Small, S. G., Pratt, A., Chen, R., & Denckla, M. B. (1996). Cognitive profiles of difficult-to-remediate and readily remediated poor readers: Early intervention as a vehicle for distinguishing between cognitive and experiential deficits as basic causes of specific reading disability. Journal of Educational Psychology, 88(4), 601.
Provides 2 hypothetical case examples that illustrate how single-case designs (alternating treatments, multiple baseline, and reversal) can be used to evaluate manipulable influences on school performance. In each case, an intervention plan is proposed for a student, and the success of the intervention is evaluated within a single-case design.
Wacker, D. P., Steege, M., & Berg, W. K. (1988). Use of single-case designs to evaluate manipulable influences on school performance. School Psychology Review.
This article provides a description of the First Step to Success early intervention program for preventing development of antisocial behavior patterns among young, at-risk children.
Walker, H. M., Severson, H. H., Feil, E. G., Stiller, B., & Golly, A. (1998). First step to success: Intervening at the point of school entry to prevent antisocial behavior patterns. Psychology in the Schools, 35(3), 259-269.
This kit presents the Systematic Screening for Behavior Disorders (SSBD) as a tool to identify behavior disorders in elementary-aged students. The kit contains a user's guide and administration manual, a technical manual reporting psychometric properties of the SSBD, an observer training manual, and multiple copies of the screening instruments.
Walker, H. M., Severson, H., & Feil, E. G. (1990). Systematic screening for behavior disorders (SSBD). Longmont, CO: Sopris West.
This article overview the conceptual foundations and underlying principles of FBA and the methods and procedures associated with conducting FBAs in school settings.
Watson, T. S., & Skinner, C. H. (2001). Functional behavioral assessment: Principles, procedures, and future directions. School Psychology Review, 30(2), 156-172.
This article presents some recommendations for employment and career-building by addressing two major vital to transition: competitive employment outcomes and postsecondary education.
Wehman, P. (2002). A new era: Revitalizing special education for children and their families. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 17(4), 194-197.
The chapters in this book deal with areas of expertise that most students will need. For example, self-determination skills, functional academics, transportation, home and community living, as well as work preparation and socialization.
Wehman, P., & Kregel, J. (2004). Functional curriculum for elementary, middle, and secondary age students with special needs. PRO-ED, Inc. 8700 Shoal Creek Blvd, Austin, TX 78757.
This investigation focused on the effects of two independent variables; (a) teacher-developed goals and monitoring systems versus a curriculum-based measurement (CBM) goal and monitoring system; and (b) individual expert versus group follow-up consultation.
Wesson, C. L. (1990). Curriculum-based measurement and two models of follow-up consultation. Exceptional Children, 57(3), 246-256.
This article will describe a CBM which is very efficient and provides the teacher with adequate information for grouping and monitoring progress throughout the school year.
Wesson, C. L., Vierthaler, J. M., & Haubrich, P. A. (1989). An efficient technique for establishing reading groups. The Reading Teacher, 42(7), 466-469.
This paper presents four studies that examine the time required to implement direct and frequent curriculum-based measurement (CBM) as well as strategies to improve the efficiency of CBM. Ten rural special education resource teachers were the subjects.
Wesson, C., Fuchs, L., Tindal, E., Mirkin, P., & Deno, S. L. (1986). Facilitating the efficiency of on-going curriculum-based measurement. Teacher Education and Special Education, 9(4), 166-172.
The purpose of this study was to ascertain the effects of manipulating the data base used for instructional decision making on student achievement.
Wesson, C., Skiba, R., Sevcik, B., King, R. P., & Deno, S. (1984). The effects of technically adequate instructional data on achievement. Remedial and Special Education, 5(5), 17-22.
Children were observed daily in four two week phases: seated around tables, then in rows, again around tables, and finally again in rows. Percentage on‐task behaviour was recorded along with rate of pupil disruption and rates of teacher approval and disapproval.
Wheldall, K., & Lam, Y. Y. (1987). Rows versus tables II: The effects of two classroom seating arrangements on classroom disruption rate, on-task behavior, and teacher behavior in three special school classes. Educational Psychology, 7(4), 303–312. https://doi.org/10.1080/0144341870070405
The effect of different classroom seating arrangements on children's on‐task behaviour was examined by observations of two top junior classes of ten‐ to eleven‐year‐old children.
Wheldall, K., Morris, M., Vaughan, P., & Ng, Y. Y. (1981). Rows versus tables: An example of the use of behavioral ecology in two classes of eleven-year-old children. Educational Psychology, 1(2), 171–184. https://doi.org/10.1080/0144341810010206
The relationships among independent variables and three measures of treatment integrity were evaluated.
Wickstrom, K. F., Jones, K. M., LaFleur, L. H., & Witt, J. C. (1998). An analysis of treatment integrity in school-based behavioral consultation. School Psychology Quarterly, 13(2), 141.
Results of this meta‐analysis research, testing for a moderator effect, show that support for the overjustification effect occurs only when intrinsic motivation is operationalized as task behaviour during a free‐time measure.
Wiersma, U. (1992). The effects of extrinsic rewards in intrinsic motivation: A meta-analysis.
The cognitive principle that guides this article is: People are naturally curious, but they are not naturally good thinkers; unless the cognitive conditions are right, people will avoid thinking.
Willingham, D. T. (2009). Why don't students like school?: A cognitive scientist answers questions about how the mind works and what it means for the classroom. John Wiley & Sons.
This study examined components of teacher judgements that an intervention is either acceptable or unacceptable. A total of 180 preservice and student teachers were asked to evaluate the acceptability of six different interventions.
Witt, J. C., & Martens, B. K. (1983). Assessing the acceptability of behavioral interventions used in classrooms. Psychology in the Schools, 20(4), 510-517.
This article provides a brief review and a critique of behavioral consultation. Specifically, the procedures utilized within BC for assessment of the problem, development of an intervention, implementation of the intervention, and plan evaluation are overly reliant on indirect methods of behavior assessment and behavior change.
Witt, J. C., Gresham, F. M., & Noell, G. H. (1996). What's behavioral about behavioral consultation. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation, 7(4), 327-344.
This study examined the integrity with which 4 general education teachers implemented an intervention designed to improve the academic performance of elementary school students. Treatment integrity was measured daily using permanent products.
Witt, J. C., Noell, G. H., Lafleur, L. H., & Mortenson, B. P. (1997). Teacher use of interventions in general education settings: Measurement and analysis of the independent variable. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 30(4), 693-696.
This research monograph offers early childhood educators a foundational resource of information needed to develop inclusion practices.
Wolery, M., & Wilbert, J. S. (1994). Including Children with Special Needs in Early Childhood Programs. Research Monograph of the National Association for the Education of Young Children, Volume 6. National Association for the Education of Young Children, 1509 16th Street, NW, Washington, DC 20036 (Order No. 145, $8 each; 5-49 copies, 10% discount; 50-99 copies, 20% discount; over 100 copies, 25% discount; orders under $20 must be prepaid)..
The author makes the case that rapid assessment can identify struggling students who can then be provided intensive instruction so their performance on high stakes tests is improved.
Yeh, S. S. (2006). Can Rapid Assessment Moderate the Consequences of High-Stakes Testing. Education & Urban Society, 39(1), 91-112.
The author reports data suggesting that the systematic use of formative assessment can reduce the pressure on teachers that they experience with high stakes testing.
Yeh, S. S. (2006). High-stakes testing: Can rapid assessment reduce the pressure?. Teachers College Record, 108(4).
The author compares the effectiness of comprehensive school reform relative to rapid progress monitoring. Progress monitoring results in much greater benefit than comprehensive school reform.
Yeh, S. S. (2008). The Cost-Effectiveness of Comprehensive School Reform and Rapid Assessment. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 16(13), 1-32.
The authors examine the effectiveness of replacing low performing teachers relative to using formative assessment as a means of increasing student outcomes.
Yeh, S. S., & Ritter, J. (2009). The Cost-Effectiveness of Replacing the Bottom Quartile of Novice Teachers Through Value-Added Teacher Assessment. Journal of Education Finance, 34(4), 426-451.
This study employed a meta-analysis method to combine the results of experimental studies on the effect of teaching learning strategies on students’ academic achievement. This study indicated that the learning strategies had 26.8% positive effect on students’ academic achievement.
YILDIRIM, I., CIRAK-KURT, S., & SEN, S. (2019). The Effect of Teaching” Learning Strategies” on Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analysis Study. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research (EJER), (79).
This article describes the use of technology to monitor student progress in math instruction. They highlight the importance of using the technology wiith fidelity.
Ysseldyke, J., & Bolt, D. M. (2007). Effect of Technology-Enhanced Continuous Progress Monitoring on Math Achievement. School Psychology Review, 36(3), 453-467.
This report updates the status of high school exit exams nationally. The number of states using end of course exams as part of accountability measures has become more common and data suggest the trend will continue.
Zabala, D., Minnici, A., McMurrer, J., & Briggs, L. (2008). State High School Exit Exams: A Move toward End-of-Course Exams. Center on Education Policy. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED504468.pdf
In this study, the reliability of the MAS was reexamined with two independent groups of developmentally disabled individuals who exhibited SIB (N = 55).
Zarcone, J. R., Rodgers, T. A., Iwata, B. A., Rourke, D. A., & Dorsey, M. F. (1991). Reliability analysis of the Motivation Assessment Scale: A failure to replicate. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 12(4), 349-360.