The present article discusses a theory of tolerance and seeks to identify the critical problems associated with the position taken in the NAS report and subsequent reform initiatives. Specifically, it is argued that brute force attempts to absorb, current special education functions into regular classrooms will necessarily fail.
Gerber, M. M. (1988). Tolerance and technology of instruction: Implications for special education reform. Exceptional Children, 54(4), 309-314.
The purpose of this paper is to describe methodological issues related to the independent variable in early intervention research. Three standards related to the independent variable are proposed:
LeLAURIN, K. A. T. H. R. Y. N., & Wolery, M. (1992). Research standards in early intervention: Defining, describing, and measuring the independent variable. Journal of Early Intervention, 16(3), 275-287.
The United States Supreme Court's recent inaugural decision involving the scope of the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975, 1 Board of Education v. Rowley, 2 wherein the Court ruled that the Westchester County public school district is not required to provide a deaf student with a sign language interpreter in the classroom, represents an extraordinary example of judicial usurpation of the legislative function.
Powell Jr, L. F. (1981). Board of Education of the Hendrick Hudson Central School District, Westchester County v. Rowley.
This book brings together 70 top researchers and scholars in the field to address the major foundational, assessment, characteristics, intervention, and methodological issues facing the field of emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) of children and adolescents
Rutherford, R. B., Quinn, M. M., & Mathur, S. R. (Eds.). (2004). Handbook of research in emotional and behavioral disorders. New York: Guilford Press.
Three formative assessment techniques for the math classroom are discussed: observation and questioning, diagnostic interviews and problem-solving-based investigations.
Sammon, K. B., & Kobett, B. (1992). Linking instruction and assessment in the mathematics classroom. The Arithmetic Teacher, 39(6), 11.
This study examined the treatment utility of brief experimental analysis for selecting skill-based oral reading interventions that targeted acquisition and fluency.
VanAuken, T. L., Chafouleas, S. M., Bradley, T. A., & Martens, B. K. (2002). Using brief experimental analysis to select oral reading interventions: An investigation of treatment utility. Journal of Behavioral Education, 11(3), 163-179.
Two retarded boys exhibited abnormally low rates of smiling. In Exp. I, the frequency of a boy's smiling was first increased with candy reinforcement, but the frequency of the response did not decrease when candy reinforcement was terminated.
The authors estimate the importance of teachers in Chicago public high schools using matched student-teacher administrative data.
Aaronson, D., Barrow, L., & Sander, W. (2007). Teachers and student achievement in the Chicago public high schools. Journal of labor Economics, 25(1), 95-135.
This article describes a school district administrator's research on optimal coaching experiences for classroom teachers. This research was done with the intent of gaining a better understanding of how coaching affects student learning.
Akhavan, N. (2015). Coaching side by side: One-on-one collaboration creates caring, connected
teachers. Journal of Staff Development, 36,34-37.
The main objective of the present review was to update the feedback literature review conducted by Balcazar, Hopkins, and Suarez in 1985. The current review identified 68 applications of feedback from 43 studies in applied organizational settings.
Alvero, A. M., Bucklin, B. R., & Austin, J. (2001). An objective review of the effectiveness and essential characteristics of performance feedback in organizational settings (1985-1998). Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 21(1), 3-29.
Value-Added Models (VAMs) has been embraced by many states and school districts as part of educational accountability systems. Value-Added Assessment (VAA) Models attempt to estimate effects of individual teachers or schools on student achievement while accounting for differences in student background. This paper provides a summary of the American Statistical Associations analysis of the efficacy of value-added modeling in education.
American Statistical Association. (2014). ASA statement on using value-added models for educational assessment. Alexandria, VA.
Examined the effect of social skills intervention on the frequency of positive peer interaction (PI) in 4 moderately hearing-impaired preschool children (aged 5.5 yrs to 5.10 yrs).
Antia, S., & Kreimeyer, K. (1988). Maintenance of positive peer interaction in preschool hearing-impaired children. The Volta Review.
This book was designed as an assessment of standardized testing and its alternatives at the secondary school level.
Archbald, D. A., & Newmann, F. M. (1988). Beyond standardized testing: Assessing authentic academic achievement in the secondary school.
This paper describe a comprehensive model for the application of behavior analysis in the school. The model includes descriptive assessment, functional analysis, functional behavioral assessment, schools, in-home, problematic behavior.
Asmus, J. M., Vollmer, T. R., & Borrero, J. C. (2002). Functional behavioral assessment: A school based model. Education & Treatment of Children, 25(1), 67.
A program of research related to school-based models for urban children's mental health is described, with a particular focus on improving access to services, promoting children's functioning, and providing for program sustainability.
Atkins, M. S., Graczyk, P. A., Frazier, S. L., & Abdul-Adil, J. (2003). Toward A New Model for Promoting Urban Children's Mental Health: Accessible, Effective, and Sustainable School-Based Mental Health Services. School Psychology Review, 32(4).
The authors describe three forms of functional assessment used in applied behavior analysis and explain three potential reasons why OBM has not yet adopted the use of such techniques.
Austin, J., Carr, J. E., & Agnew, J. L. (1999). The need for assessment of maintaining variables in OBM. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 19(2), 59-87.
In 1980, a national conference (Ysseldyke & Weinberg, 1981) acknowledged a growing crisis of morale and mission in the discipline of school psychology. As part of that conference, Baer and Bushell (1981) described the accomplishments of behavior-analytic approaches to public education.
Baer, D. M. (1988). The Future of Behavior Analysis in Educational Settings. In Handbook of Behavior Therapy in Education (pp. 823-828). Springer, Boston, MA.
This book is a practical text that provides the beginning researcher with a clear description of how behavior analysts conduct applied research and submit it for publication. In a sequence of ten logical steps, the text covers the elements of single-case research design and the practices involved in organizing, implementing, and evaluating research studies.
Bailey, J. S., & Burch, M. R. (2017). Research methods in applied behavior analysis. Routledge.
While monitoring performance allows educators to know the effects of their interventions. this article suggests that not all meaures are equal.
Baker, E. L., O’Neil, H. F., & Linn, R. L. (1993). Policy and validity prospects for performance-based assessment. American Psychologist, 48(12).
Accountabiliy requires monitoring the outcomes of intervenntions. The author argues that single-case designs are well suited to evaluate the effects of interventions.
Barnett, & Pepiton, D. W. (1999). Evaluating early intervention: Accountability methods for service delivery innovations. Journal of Special Education, 33(3), 177. Retrieved from http://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ597232
The authors describe minimal requirements for functional intervention-based assessment and suggest strategies for using these methods to analyze developmental delays and make special service eligibility decisions for preschool children (intervention-based multifactored evaluation or IBMFE).
Barnett, D. W., Bell, S. H., Gilkey, C. M., Lentz Jr, F. E., Graden, J. L., Stone, C. M., ... & Macmann, G. M. (1999). The promise of meaningful eligibility determination: Functional intervention-based multifactored preschool evaluation. The Journal of Special Education, 33(2), 112-124.
Describes the ways in which accountability methods were built into practicum experiences for specialist- and doctoral-level school psychology trainees at the University of Cincinnati.
Barnett, D. W., Daly III, E. J., Hampshire, E. M., Rovak Hines, N., Maples, K. A., Ostrom, J. K., & Van Buren, A. E. (1999). Meeting performance-based training demands: Accountability in an intervention-based practicum. School Psychology Quarterly, 14(4), 357.
This article evaluates a procedure‐based scoring system for a performance assessment (an observed paper towels investigation) and a notebook surrogate completed by fifth‐grade students varying in hands‐on science experience.
Baxter, G. P., Shavelson, R. J., Goldman, S. R., & Pine, J. (1992). Evaluation of procedure‐based scoring for hands‐on science assessment. Journal of Educational Measurement, 29(1), 1-17.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a sequence of three single-digit (1 digit 3 1 digit) multiplication problems on the latency to initiate multiple-digit (3 digit 3 3 digit) multiplication problems for 2 students in an alternative education school
Belfiore, P. J., Lee, D. L., Vargas, A. U., & Skinner, C. H. (1997). Effects of high‐preference single‐digit mathematics problem completion on multiple‐digit mathematics problem performance. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 30(2), 327-330.
This paper outline the rationale, critical dimensions, and techniques for using peer micronorms and discuss technical adequacy considerations.
Bell, S. H., & Barnett, D. W. (1999). Peer micronorms in the assessment of young children: Methodological review and examples. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 19(2), 112-122.
Criticisms leveled at the American education system are examined in this paper, which asserts that misinformation about Japanese education should not be used as a basis for educational reform in the United States.
Berliner, D. C. (1992). Educational Reform in an Era of Disinformation.
This paper introduces analysis techniques and results showing how student growth percentiles, a normative growth analysis technique, can be used to examine the illuminate the relationship between standards based accountability systems and the performance standards on which they are based.
Betebenner, D. (2009). Growth, standards and accountability. Dover, NH: National Center for the Improvement of Educational Assessment. Retrieved from https://www.nciea.org/sites/default/files/publications/growthandStandard_DB09.pdf
This study used a delayed multiple-baseline across-participants design to analyze the effects of coaching on special education teachers’ implementation of function-based interventions with students with severe disabilities. This study also examined the extent to which teachers could generalize function-based interventions in different situations.
Bethune, K. S., & Wood, C. L. (2013). Effects of coaching on teachers’ use of function-based interventions for students with severe disabilities. Teacher Education and Special Education, 36(2), 97-114.
This article traces the development of concepts, procedures, and findings associated with fluency and discusses their implications for instructional design and practice. It invites further controlled research and experimental analyses of phenomena that may be significant in the future evolution of educational technology and in the analysis of complex behavior.
Binder, C. (1996). Behavioral fluency: Evolution of a new paradigm. The behavior analyst, 19(2), 163-197.
The generality of the mathematical principles of reinforcement (MPR) was tested with humans.
Bizo, L. A., Remington, B., D’Souza, L. S., Heighway, S. K., & Baston, C. (2002). Human variable ratio performance. Learning and motivation, 33(4), 411-432.
Teacher professional development is essential to efforts to improve our schools. This article maps the terrain of research on this important topic. It first provides an overview of what we have learned as a field, about effective professional development programs and their impact on teacher learning.
Borko, H. (2004). Professional development and teacher learning: Mapping the terrain. Educational Researcher, 30(8), 3–15.
These five articles begin to build a bridge between literature. specifically, they report on how the use of the indicators derived from value-added models (VAM) actually payout in practice and give carefully consideration to how the design and implementation of teacher evaluation system could be modified to enhance the positive impact of accountability and mitigate the negative consequences,
Braun, H. (2015). The value in value added depends on the ecology. Educational Researcher, 44(2), 127–131. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.3102%2F0013189X15576341
Conducted classroom observations and functional assessments for 3 male elementary school students (aged 6–9 yrs old) referred for disruptive behavior. A descriptive assessment was first conducted to select 1 of 3 hypotheses regarding potential variables maintaining the disruptive behavior: teacher attention, peer attention, or escape from academic tasks.
Broussard, C. D., & Northup, J. (1995). An approach to functional assessment and analysis of disruptive behavior in regular education classrooms. School Psychology Quarterly, 10(2), 151.
Employing a conceptual framework of generalization strategies proposed by Stokes and Osnes (1986), the authors selectively reviewed the research literature concerning interventions to improve young children's social behavior and strategies for promoting generalization and maintenance of young children's social responding. Three basic strategies are discussed.
Brown, W. H., & Odom, S. L. (1994). Strategies and tactics for promoting generalization and maintenance of young children's social behavior. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 15(2), 99-118.
The effects of long and short durations of positive practice overcorrection were studied, for the reduction of off-task behavior after an instruction to perform an object-placement task.
Carey, R. G., & Bucher, B. (1983). Positive practice overcorrection: The effects of duration of positive practice on acquisition and response reduction. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 16(1), 101-109.
Two issues relevant to competency-based teacher training were investigated--the specification of acceptable implementation levels for validated techniques and the necessity and feasibility of providing training on those techniques
Carnine, D. W., & Fink, W. T. (1978). Increasing the Rate of Presentation and Use of Signals in Elementary Classroom Teachers. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 11(1), 35-46.
This child-effects concept was explored empirically in a study involving 12 adults who were asked to teach four pairs of children in which one member of the pair exhibited problem behavior and the other typically did not.
Carr, E. G., Taylor, J. C., & Robinson, S. (1991). The effects of severe behavior problems in children on the teaching behavior of adults. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 24(3), 523-535.
This paper discusses the search for a “magic metric” in education: an index/number that would be generally accepted as the most efficient descriptor of school’s performance in a district.
Celio, M. B. (2013). Seeking the Magic Metric: Using Evidence to Identify and Track School System Quality. In Performance Feedback: Using Data to Improve Educator Performance (Vol. 3, pp. 97-118). Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute.
This paper summarizes the results of a retrospective review of generalization in the context of social skills research with preschool children.
Chandler, L. K., Lubeck, R. C., & Fowler, S. A. (1992). Generalization and maintenance of preschool children's social skills: A critical review and analysis. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 25(2), 415-428.
This paper examines the issue of efficacy of value-added measures in evaluating teachers. This question is important in understanding whether value-added analysis provides unbiased estimates of teachers’ impact on student achievement and whether these teachers improve long-term student outcomes.
Chetty, R., Friedman, J. N., & Rockoff, J. E. (2011). The long-term impacts of teachers: Teacher value-added and student outcomes in adulthood (No. w17699). National Bureau of Economic Research.
This paper evaluates the long-term impacts of STAR by linking the experimental data to administrative records.
Chetty, R., Friedman, J., Hilger, N., Saez, E., Schanzenbach, D. W., & Yagan, D. (2011). How does your kindergarten classroom affect your earnings? Evidence from Project STAR. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 126(4), 1593–1660.
The purpose of this overview is to provide information about the role of formal teacher evaluation, the research that examines the practice, and its impact on student outcomes.
Cleaver, S., Detrich, R. & States, J. (2018). Overview of Teacher Formal Evaluation. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute.https://www.winginstitute.org/teacher-evaluation-formal.
The purpose of this paper on value-added research in education is to define this type of research, provide an overview of how it has been conducted, and discuss its benefits and limitations.
Cleaver, S., Detrich, R. & States, J. (2020). Overview of Value-Added Research in Education: Reliability, Validity, Efficacy, and Usefulness. Oakland, CA: The Wing Institute. https://www.winginstitute.org/staff-value-added.
There are clear parallels between instructional problems and social problems in both the way the respective behaviors are established and in the design of possible remedies. These parallels are identified and a basic instructional plan is presented for remedying social problems.
Colvin, G., & Sugai, G. (1988). Proactive strategies for managing social behavior problems: An instructional approach. Education and Treatment of Children, 341-348.
This study examines the theoretical and practical implications of ranking teachers with a one-dimensional value-added metric when teacher effectiveness varies across subjects or student types.
Condie, S., Lefgren, L., & Sims, D. (2014). Teacher heterogeneity, value-added and education policy. Economics of Education Review, 40, 76-92.
Two studies were conducted with children who displayed behavior problems to evaluate the effects of task preference, task demands, and adult attention on child behavior.
Cooper, L. J., Wacker, D. P., Thursby, D., Plagmann, L. A., Harding, J., Millard, T., & Derby, M. (1992). Analysis of the effects of task preferences, task demands, and adult attention on child behavior in outpatient and classroom settings. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 25(4), 823-840.
This text was written to help the reader acquire a base of knowledge about classical psychometrics and to integrate new ideas into that framework of knowledge.
Crocker, L. M., & Algina, J. (1986). Introduction to classical and modern test theory. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
This papers reviews efforts to develop a reliable and valid general outcome measure of social behavior.
Cummings, K. D., Kaminski, R. A., & Merrell, K. W. (2008). Advances in the assessment of social competence: Findings from a preliminary investigation of a general outcome measure for social behavior. Psychology in the Schools, 45(10), 930-946.
The present study used the instructional hierarchy to compare the effects of three instructional interventions (listening passage preview, subject passage preview, and taped words) on subjects' oral reading performance on word lists and passages.
Daly III, E. J., & Martens, B. K. (1994). A comparison of three interventions for increasing oral reading performance: Application of the instructional hierarchy. Journal of applied behavior analysis, 27(3), 459-469.
Examines the Instructional Hierarchy, a conceptual framework for refining the notion of academic responding according to a learning hierarchy and describing treatment components (e.g., modeling, drill, reinforcement, etc.) that correspond to different stages of the learning hierarchy.
Daly III, E. J., Lentz Jr, F. E., & Boyer, J. (1996). The Instructional Hierarchy: A conceptual model for understanding the effective components of reading interventions. School Psychology Quarterly, 11(4), 369.
Brief experimental analyses of oral reading fluency were conducted with 4 participants who had been referred by teachers and parents for reading problems. The procedures involved the sequential application of reading interventions to improve students’ oral reading fluency.
Daly III, E. J., Martens, B. K., Hamler, K. R., Dool, E. J., & Eckert, T. L. (1999). A brief experimental analysis for identifying instructional components needed to improve oral reading fluency. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 32(1), 83-94.
Brief experimental analyses of academic performance are emerging as a new tool educators can use to link assessment to intervention. This approach involves testing treatments directly using single-case experimental design elements to select intervention strategies for oral reading fluency problems. The purpose of this investigation was to refine the methods reported in previous studies.
Daly III, E. J., Murdoch, A., Lillenstein, L., Webber, L., & Lentz, F. E. (2002). An Examination of Methods for Testing Treatments: Conducting Brief Experimental Analyses of the Effects of Instructional Components on Oral Reading Fluency. Education & Treatment of Children, 25(3).
The purpose of this article is to describe a simple conceptual framework for academic intervention that extends functional analysis procedures to basic academic skills.
Daly III, E. J., Witt, J. C., Martens, B. K., & Dool, E. J. (1997). A model for conducting a functional analysis of academic performance problems. School Psychology Review.
Reading interventions were applied in a brief multielement format to examine their effectiveness at improving the oral reading fluency of three students referred for reading problems.
Daly, E. J., Martens, B. K., Dool, E. J., & Hintze, J. M. (1998). Using brief functional analysis to select interventions for oral reading. Journal of Behavioral Education, 8(2), 203-218.
Economic and demographic changes in the United States signal a new mission for education. This paper argues that this changed mission requires a new paradigm for school reform policy, one that shifts from designing controls intended to direct the system to developing capacity that enables schools to meet students' needs.
Darling-Hammond, L. (1992). Reframing the School Reform Agenda: Developing Capacity for School Transformation.
In the current study, constant time delay (CTD) was embedded in classroom activities and routines to teach counting to young children. In addition, nontarget information (the color of the object) was included in the task direction. A multiple-probe design across numbers replicated across children was used.
Daugherty, S., Grisham-Brown, J., & Hemmeter, M. L. (2001). The effects of embedded skill instruction on the acquisition of target and nontarget skills in preschoolers with developmental delays. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 21(4), 213-221.
A growing number of researchers are studying whether value-added measures can do a good job of measuring the contribution of teachers to test score growth. Here I summarize a handful of analyses that shed light on two questions.
David, J. L. (2010). What research says about using value-added measures to evaluate teachers. Educational Leadership, 67(8), 81–82. Retrieved from http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational_leadership/may10/vol67/num08/Using_Value-Added_Measures_to_Evaluate_Teachers.aspx
Tustin (1994) recently observed that an individual’s preference for one of two concurrently available reinforcers under low schedule requirements switched to the other reinforcer when the schedule requirements were high. This paper extended this line of research by examining preference for similar and dissimilar reinforcers.
Deleon, I. G., Iwata, B. A., GOH, H. L., & Worsdell, A. S. (1997). Emergence of reinforcer preference as a function of schedule requirements and stimulus similarity. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 30(3), 439-449.
The monograph presents 15 papers on the provision of special education services within the regular classroom.
Deno, E. N. (1973). Instructional Alternatives for Exceptional Children.
Three concurrent validity studies were conducted on the relationship between performances on formative measures of spelling and performances on standardized spelling achievement measures using learning disabled (LD) and non-LD elementary students.
Deno, S. L. (1980). Relationships Among Simple Measures of Spelling and Performance on Standardized Achievement Tests.
Three concurrent validity studies were conducted to determine the relationship between performances on formative measures of reading and standardized achievement measures of reading.
Deno, S. L., Mirkin, P. K., & Chiang, B. (1982). Identifying valid measures of reading. Exceptional children, 49(1), 36-47.
Demonstrates the use of functional assessment procedures to identify the appropriate use of the Picture Exchange Communication system as part of a behavior support plan to resolve serious problems exhibited by a 3 yr old boy with autism and pervasive developmental disorder.
Dooley, P., Wilczenski, F. L., & Torem, C. (2001). Using an activity schedule to smooth school transitions. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 3(1), 57-61.
This article presents the legal requirements of the IDEA amendments regarding ISPs, FBAs, and BIPs for special education students with problem behavior, (b) describe the initial policy letters, and (c) discuss the implications of the law for school psychologists and other members of IEP teams.
Drasgow, E., & Yell, M. L. (2001). Legal Requirements and Challenges. School Psychology Review, 30(2), 239-251.
This study evaluated the effect feedback to student peer tutors had on the level of treatment integrity in implementing a peer tutoring program.
Dufrene, B. A., Noell, G. H., Gilbertson, D. N., & Duhon, G. J. (2005). Monitoring Implementation of Reciprocal Peer Tutoring: Identifying and Intervening With Students Who Do Not Maintain Accurate Implementation. School Psychology Review, 34(1), 74-86.
Two analyses investigated the effects of choice making on the responding of elementary school students with emotional and behavioral challenges.
Dunlap, G., DePerczel, M., Clarke, S., Wilson, D., Wright, S., White, R., & Gomez, A. (1994). Choice making to promote adaptive behavior for students with emotional and behavioral challenges. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 27(3), 505-518.
To help inform drug abuse prevention research in school settings about the issues surrounding implementation, the authors conducted a review of the fidelity of implementation research literature spanning a 25-year period.
Dusenbury, L., Brannigan, R., Falco, M., & Hansen, W. B. (2003). A review of research on fidelity of implementation: implications for drug abuse prevention in school settings. Health education research, 18(2), 237-256.
This paper summarizes survey results about the acceptability of different methods for monitoring treatment integrity and performance feedback.
Easton, J. E., & Erchul, W. P. (2011). An Exploration of Teacher Acceptability of Treatment Plan Implementation: Monitoring and Feedback Methods. Journal of Educational & Psychological Consultation, 21(1), 56-77. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10474412.2011.544949?journalCode=hepc20.
This is a book about single-subject experiments. The goal is to detail the underlying rationale and logic of single-case designs and to present major design options.
Edgington, E. (1983). Response-guided experimentation. Psyccritiques, 28(1), 64-65.
Featuring step-by-step guidance, examples, and forms, this guide to functional assessment procedures provides a first step toward designing positive and educative programs to eliminate serious behavior problems.
EDITION, N. T. T. (2015). Functional assessment and program development for problem behavior: a practical handbook.
Presents 4 case studies demonstrating an innovative approach for studying and promoting treatment integrity in a manner acceptable to consultees and related to treatment success.
Ehrhardt, K. E., Barnett, D. W., Lentz Jr, F. E., Stollar, S. A., & Reifin, L. H. (1996). Innovative methodology in ecological consultation: Use of scripts to promote treatment acceptability and integrity. School Psychology Quarterly, 11(2), 149.
Research on classroom management is reviewed, with an emphasis on lines of inquiry originating in educational psychology with implications for teacher education.
Emmer, E. T., & Stough, L. M. (2001). Classroom management: A critical part of educational psychology, with implications for teacher education. Educational psychologist, 36(2), 103-112.
This article provides a wide range of information for 100 articles published from January 1980 through July 1999 that describe the functional assessment (FA) of behavior in school settings.
Ervin, R. A., Radford, P. M., Bertsch, K., & Piper, A. L. (2001). A descriptive analysis and critique of the empirical literature on school-based functional assessment. School Psychology Review, 30(2), 193.
Value-added estimates of teacher or school quality are increasingly used for both high- and low-stakes accountability purposes, making understanding of their limitations critical.
Everson, K. C. (2017). Value-added modeling and educational accountability: Are we answering the real questions?. Review of Educational Research, 87(1), 35-70.
This paper exams teachers' views on unions, tenure, pay-for-performance, alternative certification, and other issues and finds that while most teachers are strong supporters of standards, a sense of vulnerability, along with fears of politics and favoritism, make them loyal to the tenure system, loyal to their unions, and highly skeptical about pay tied to student test scores.
Farkas, S., Johnson, J., & Duffett, A. (2003). Stand by me: What teachers say about unions,
merit pay, and other professional matters. New York: Public Agenda.
Fisher, D., Frey, N., & Lapp, D. (2011). Coaching middle-level teachers to think aloud improves comprehension instruction and student reading achievement. The Teacher Educator, 46(3), 231-243.
The four applied single-subject research designs presented provide an overview of the most common types of single-subject research designs that can be used by a school counselor.
Foster, L. H., Watson, T. S., Meeks, C., & Young, J. S. (2002). Single-subject research design for school counselors: Becoming an applied researcher. Professional School Counseling, 6(2), 146-154.
A peer-monitoring procedure and a self-monitoring procedure were developed to decrease disruption and non participation during the transition activities of a special kindergarten class.
Fowler, S. A. (1986). Peer-monitoring and self-monitoring: Alternatives to traditional teacher management. Exceptional Children, 52(6), 573-581.
The purpose of this study was to implement and validate a process for readying students to transition successfully from special education resource rooms to regular classrooms for math instruction.
Fuchs, D., Fuchs, L. S., & Fernstrom, P. (1993). A conservative approach to special education reform: Mainstreaming through transenvironmental programming and curriculum-based measurement. American Educational Research Journal, 30(1), 149-177.
This assessment of the reliability and validity of skills analysis programs within curriculum-based measurement (CBM), with various groups of handicapped and nonhandicapped youngsters, indicated that the skills analysis programs in spelling and math provided consistent information that related well to the primary graphed CBM scores.
Fuchs, L. S. (1989). The Reliability and Validity of Skills Analysis within Curriculum-Based Measurement. Diagnostique, 14(4), 203-21.
This digest summarizes principles of performance assessment, which connects classroom assessment to learning. Specific ways that assessment can enhance instruction are outlined, as are criteria that assessments should meet in order to inform instructional decisions. Performance assessment is compared to behavioral assessment, mastery learning, and curriculum-based management.
Fuchs, L. S. (1995). Connecting Performance Assessment to Instruction: A Comparison of Behavioral Assessment, Mastery Learning, Curriculum-Based Measurement, and Performance Assessment. ERIC Digest E530.
Discusses treatment validity as a unifying concept for reconceptualizing the identification of learning disabilities. The authors present a rationale for this alternative framework, use one well-developed classroom assessment method to illustrate the technical requirements of this alternative eligibility process, and discuss the feasibility issues this approach presents.
Fuchs, L. S., & Fuchs, D. (1998). Treatment validity: A unifying concept for reconceptualizing the identification of learning disabilities. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 13(4), 204-219.
The purpose of this article is to describe and critique three classroom-based assessment models for monitoring student progress toward becoming competent readers.
Fuchs, L. S., & Fuchs, D. (1999). Monitoring student progress toward the development of reading competence: A review of three forms of classroom-based assessment. School Psychology Review, 28(4).
In conjunction with a curriculum-based measurement (CBM) computer program, software was designed to identify 27 phonetic patterns within correctly spelled words and 27 spelling error types within misspelled words. Two applications of this software were examined.
Fuchs, L. S., Allinder, R. M., Hamlett, C. L., & Fuchs, D. (1990). An analysis of spelling curricula and teachers' skills in identifying error types. Remedial and Special Education, 11(1), 42-52.
The effects of aggregation on the reliability of curriculum-based measuresof academic performance were explored in two studies.
Fuchs, L. S., Deno, S. L., & Marston, D. (1983). Improving the reliability of curriculum-based measures of academic skills for psychoeducational decision making. Diagnostique, 8(3), 135-149.
This study examined the educational effects of repeated curriculumbased measurement and evaluation. Thirty-nine special educators, each having three to four pupils in the study, were assigned randomly to a repeated curriculum-based measurement/evaluation (experimental) treatment or a conventional special education evaluation (contrast) treatment
Fuchs, L. S., Deno, S. L., & Mirkin, P. K. (1984). The effects of frequent curriculum-based measurement and evaluation on pedagogy, student achievement, and student awareness of learning. American Educational Research Journal, 21(2), 449-460.
A study was conducted to explore the reliability and validity of three prominent procedures used in informal reading inventories (IRIs)
Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., & Deno, S. L. (1982). Reliability and validity of curriculum-based informal reading inventories. Reading Research Quarterly, 6-26.
This study assessed the effects of alternative goal structures within curriculum-based measurement (CBM) in the area of math.
Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., & Hamlett, C. L. (1989). Effects of alternative goal structures within curriculum-based measurement. Exceptional Children, 55(5), 429-438.
This study investigated the importance of instrumental use of curriculum-based measurement (CBM) to planning effective reading programs.
Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., & Hamlett, C. L. (1989). Effects of instrumental use of curriculum-based measurement to enhance instructional programs. Remedial and Special Education, 10(2), 43-52.
The purpose of this study was to compare two types of teacher feedback, using an ongoing measurement system that involved students’ performance on a reading recall task.
Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., & Hamlett, C. L. (1989). Monitoring reading growth using student recalls: Effects of two teacher feedback systems. The Journal of Educational Research, 83(2), 103-110.
This article describes a research program conducted over the past 8 years to address how technology can be used to surmount these implementation difficulties. The research program focused on one variety of objective, ongoing assessments known as curriculum-based measurement, in the areas of reading, spelling, and math.
Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., & Hamlett, C. L. (1993). Technological advances linking the assessment of students' academic proficiency to instructional planning. Journal of Special Education Technology, 12(1), 49-62.
This article reviews an inductive assessment model for building instructional programs that satisfy the requirement that satisfy the requirement that special education be planned to address an individual student's need.
Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., & Hamlett, C. L. (1994). Strengthening the connection between assessment and instructional planning with expert systems. Exceptional Children, 61(2), 138.
30 special education teachers were assigned randomly to 3 groups: curriculum-based measurement (CBM) with expert system advice (CBM-ES), CBM with no expert system advice (CBM-NES), and control (i.e., no CBM).
Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., Hamlett, C. L., & Allinder, R. M. (1991). Effects of expert system advice within curriculum-based measurement on teacher planning and student achievement in spelling. School Psychology Review.
This study assessed the effects of expert system instructional consultation within curriculum-based measurement (CBM).
Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., Hamlett, C. L., & Ferguson, C. (1992). Effects of expert system consultation within curriculum-based measurement, using a reading maze task. Exceptional children, 58(5), 436-450.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of using computer software to store, graph, and analyze student performance data on teacher efficiency and satisfaction with curriculum-based progress-monitoring procedures.
Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., Hamlett, C. L., & Hasselbring, T. S. (1987). Using computers with curriculum-based monitoring: Effects on teacher efficiency and satisfaction. Journal of Special Education Technology, 8(4), 14-27.
Examined the role of skills analysis (SA) in curriculum-based measurement (CBM) for the purpose of developing more effective instructional (mathematics) programs. 30 special education teachers implemented 1 of 3 treatments for 15 wks with a total of 91 mildly and moderately handicapped pupils.
Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., Hamlett, C. L., & Stecker, P. M. (1990). The role of skills analysis in curriculum-based measurement in math. School Psychology Review.
This study examined the effectiveness of innovative curriculum-based measurement (CBM) classwide decision-making structures within general education mathematics instruction, with and without recommendations for how to incorporate CBM feedback into instructional planning.
Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., Hamlett, C. L., Phillips, N. B., & Bentz, J. (1994). Classwide curriculum-based measurement: Helping general educators meet the challenge of student diversity. Exceptional Children, 60(6), 518-537.
The purpose of this classroom-based experiment was to explore methods for helping students generate conceptual mathematical explanations during peer-mediated learning activities.
Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., Hamlett, C. L., Phillips, N. B., Karns, K., & Dutka, S. (1997). Enhancing students' helping behavior during peer-mediated instruction with conceptual mathematical explanations. The Elementary School Journal, 97(3), 223-249.
The purpose of this study was to investigate technical features of a curriculum-based measurement (CBM) system that addresses a concepts and applications mathematics curriculum (i.e., number concepts, counting, applied computation, geometry, measurement, charts, graphs, money, and problem solving).
Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., Hamlett, C. L., Thompson, A., Roberts, P. H., Kubek, P., & Stecker, P. M. (1994). Technical features of a mathematics concepts and applications curriculum-based measurement system. Diagnostique, 19(4), 23-49.
The purpose of this study was to examine students' weekly rates of academic growth, or slopes of achievement, when Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) is conducted repeatedly over 1 year.
Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., Hamlett, C. L., Walz, L., & Germann, G. (1993). Formative evaluation of academic progress: How much growth can we expect?. School Psychology Review, 22, 27-27.
The purpose of this study was to examine effects of classroom-basedperformance-assessment (PA)-driven instruction.
Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., Karns, K., Hamlett, C. L., & Katzaroff, M. (1999). Mathematics performance assessment in the classroom: Effects on teacher planning and student problem solving. American educational research journal, 36(3), 609-646.
The purposes of this study were to examine how well 3 measures, representing 3 points on a traditional-alternative mathematics assessment continuum, interrelated and discriminated students achieving above, at, and below grade level and to explore effects of cooperative testing for the most innovative measure (performance assessment).
Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., Karns, K., Hamlett, C., Katzaroff, M., & Dutka, S. (1998). Comparisons among individual and cooperative performance assessments and other measures of mathematics competence. The Elementary School Journal, 99(1), 23-51.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of workgroup size and structure during collaborative work on complex tasks.
Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., Kazdan, S., Karns, K., Calhoon, M. B., Hamlett, C. L., & Hewlett, S. (2000). Effects of workgroup structure and size on student productivity during collaborative work on complex tasks. The Elementary School Journal, 100(3), 183-212.
This study assessed the efficiency of and teacher satisfaction with curriculum-based measurement (CBM) when student performance data are collected by teachers or by computers.
Fuchs, L. S., Hamlett, C. L., Fuchs, D., Stecker, P. M., & Ferguson, C. (1988). Conducting curriculum-based measurement with computerized data collection: Effects on efficiency and teacher satisfaction. Journal of Special Education Technology, 9(2), 73-86.
The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of (a) ongoing, systematic assessment of student growth (i.e., curriculum-based measurement) and (b) expert system instructional consultation on teacher planning and student achievement in the area of mathematics operations.
Fuchs, L. S., Hamlett, D. F. C. L., & Stecker, P. M. (1991). Effects of curriculum-based measurement and consultation on teacher planning and student achievement in mathematics operations. American educational research journal, 28(3), 617-641.
This article aimed to present frameworks and practices coaches can use with classroom teachers to facilitate the implementation of evidence-based interventions in schools.
Garbacz, S. A., Lannie, A. L., Jeffrey-Pearsall, J. L., & Truckenmiller, A. J. (2015). Strategies for effective classroom coaching. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth, 59(4), 263-273.
The author explains in this paper that policies from on high often work against campuses being more productive. This paper ends with definite recommendations about how new governance arrangements can promote productivity.
George W. Bush Institute. (2014). Governing Schools for Productivity. The Productivity for Results Series No. 4. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED560216.pdf
A model of special education is presented in this article based on the use of a direct and repeated measurement and evaluation system for developing effective educational programs.
Germann, G., & Tindal, G. (1985). An application of curriculum-based assessment: The use of direct and repeated measurement. Exceptional Children, 52(3), 244-265.
This paper report on work estimating the stability of value-added estimates of teacher effects, an important area of investigation given that new workforce policies implicitly assume that effectiveness is a stable attribute within teachers.
Goldhaber, D. D., & Hansen, M. (2008). Is it Just a Bad Class?: Assessing the Stability of Measured Teacher Performance. Seattle, WA: Center on Reinventing Public Education.
Interview and survey data from six school districts that have recently implemented new evaluation systems with classroom observations provide evidence that principals tend to rely less on test scores in their human capital decisions.
Goldring, E., Grissom, J. A., Rubin, M., Neumerski, C. M., Cannata, M., Drake, T., & Schuermann, P. (2015). Make room value added: Principals’ human capital decisions and the emergence of teacher observation data. Educational Researcher, 44(2), 96-104.
Examined the forecasting accuracy of 2 slope estimation procedures (ordinary-least-squares regression and split-middle trend lines) for reading curriculum-based measurement (CBM), a behavioral approach to the assessment of academic skills that emphasizes the direct measurement of academic behaviors.
Good, R. H., & Shinn, M. R. (1990). Forecasting accuracy of slope estimates for reading curriculum-based measurement: Empirical evidence. Behavioral Assessment.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact that a self-contained Least Restrictive Environment (LRE) with a reduced adult to student ratio would have on the frequency of SED students’ on-task behavior and overall lesson engagement throughout the school day.
Gooding, E. (2017). Reducing Disruptive Behavior in Students with Serious Emotional Disturbance.
This article examines the current "third wave" school restructuring movement and its attempt to reform U.S. schools based on the perceived needs of the information age.
Goodman, J. (1995). Change without difference: School restructuring in historical perspective. Harvard Educational Review, 65(1), 1-30.
Examines evidence supporting performance-based instructional models. Performance-based instructional models posit change in students' classroom behavior and academic achievement to be a function of changes in instruction.
Greenwood, C. R. (1996). The case for performance-based instructional models. School Psychology Quarterly, 11(4), 283.
Resistance to intervention is a function of a number of factors including the severity, chronicity, generalization, and tolerance of the behavior, as well as the strength, acceptability, and effectiveness of interventions. These factors are discussed, and implications for referral, assessment, intervention, and classification are presented.
Gresham, F. M. (1991). Conceptualizing behavior disorders in terms of resistance to intervention. School Psychology Review.
Three group-oriented contingency systems (interdependent, dependent, and independent) were compared in a modified reversal design to evaluate each system's effectiveness in controlling the disruptive behavior of a self-contained classroom of educable mentally retarded children.
Gresham, F. M., & Gresham, G. N. (1982). Interdependent, dependent, and independent group contingencies for controlling disruptive behavior. The Journal of Special Education, 16(1), 101-110.
This article maintains that intelligence tests contribute little if any information useful for the planning, implementation, and evaluation of instructional interventions for children. This argument is supported by the virtual absence of empirical evidence supporting the existence of aptitude × treatment interactions.
Gresham, F. M., & Witt, J. C. (1997). Utility of intelligence tests for treatment planning, classification, and placement decisions: Recent empirical findings and future directions. School Psychology Quarterly, 12(3), 249.
Individualized assessments of the effects of three doses of methylphenidate (MPH) were conducted for 2 students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder within each child’s classroom using behavioral, academic, and social measures.
Gulley, V., & Northup, J. (1997). Comprehensive school‐based behavioral assessment of the effects of methylphenidate. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 30(4), 627-638.
In this paper research is identified that supports the use of specific classroom management strategies in classrooms for children with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). Information is presented that indicates that these strategies may not be implemented or may not be effectively implemented by the teachers of students with EBD.
Gunter, P. L., & Denny, R. K. (1996). Research issues and needs regarding teacher use of classroom management strategies. Behavioral Disorders, 22(1), 15-20.
This paper examined the extent to which alternative stimuli that have been identified through a choice assessment would substitute for attention (the functional analysis–based reinforcer) in a noncontingent reinforcement procedure.
Hanley, G. P., Piazza, C. C., & Fisher, W. W. (1997). Noncontingent presentation of attention and alternative stimuli in the treatment of attention‐maintained destructive behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 30(2), 229-237.
The precise method of attributing differences in classroom achievement to teachers is the
subject of considerable discussion and analysis.
Hanushek, E. A., & Rivkin, S. G. (2010). Generalizations about using value-added measures of teacher quality. American Economic Review, 100(2), 267-71.
This paper reviews the role of cognitive skills in promoting economic well-being, with a particular focus on the role of school quality and quantity.
Hanushek, E. A., & Woessmann, L. (2008). The role of cognitive skills in economic development. Journal of economic literature, 46(3), 607-68.
Seven parents conducted assessments in an outpatient clinic using a prescribed hierarchy of antecedent and consequence treatment components for their children's problem behavior. Brief assessment of potential treatment components was conducted to identify variables that controlled the children's appropriate behavior.
Harding, J., Wacker, D. P., Cooper, L. J., Millard, T., & Jensen‐Kovalan, P. (1994). Brief hierarchical assessment of potential treatment components with children in an outpatient clinic. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 27(2), 291-300.
This article addresses whether or not the assumptions upon which IDEA is based remain valid as we approach the 21st century. We critique these assumptions within the context of four requirements of IDEA
Hardman, Michael & Mcdonnell, John & Welch, Marshall. (1997). Perspectives on the future of IDEA. Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps. 22. 10.1177/154079699702200201.
The authors examine the relationships between observational ratings of teacher performance, principals’ evaluations of teachers’ cognitive and non-cognitive skills and test-score based measures of teachers’ productivity.
Harris, D. N., & Sass, T. R. (2014). Skills, productivity and the evaluation of teacher performance. Economics of Education Review, 40, 183-204.
This paper presents a multi-method model for evaluting the impact of mental health programs.
Hoagwood, K., & Burns, B. J. (1996). Outcomes of mental health care for children and adolescents: I.A. comprehensive conceptual model. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 35(8), 1055.
In this issue of JPBI, the forum is dedicated to comments from administrators, teachers, parents, students, and specialists who are participating in efforts to establish school-wide behavior support.
Horner, R. H., & Sugai, G. (2000). School-wide behavior support: An emerging initiative. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 2(4), 231.
In this chapter, we will review several treatment models and their limitations, which are best understood following a brief discussion of the learned (functional) characteristics of behavior disorders.
Iwata, B. A., Vollmer, T. R., Zarcone, J. R., & Rodgers, T. A. (1993). Treatment classification and selection based on behavioral function. In Behavior analysis and treatment (pp. 101-125). Springer, Boston, MA.
This paper examines how well principals can distinguish between more and less effective teachers. To put principal evaluations in context, we compare them with the traditional determinants of teacher compensation-education and experience-as well as value-added measures of teacher effectiveness.
Jacob, B. A., & Lefgren, L. (2008). Can principals identify effective teachers? Evidence on subjective performance evaluation in education. Journal of Labor Economics, 26(1), 101-136.
This study draws on 32 interviews from a random sample of teachers and 2 years of survey data from more than 12,000 teachers per year to measure their perceptions of the clarity, practicality, and cost of the new system.
Jiang, J. Y., Sporte, S. E., & Luppescu, S. (2015). Teacher perspectives on evaluation reform: Chicago’s REACH students. Educational Researcher, 44(2), 105-116.
This study sought to determine whether or not student teachers who were trained and required to use a data-based problem-solving approach in their practicum classrooms would obtain higher levels of pupil achievement in reading and mathematics than student teachers who did not receive the training.
Jones, E. D., & Krouse, J. P. (1986). The Effectiveness of Data-Based Instruction by Student Teachers in Classrooms for Students with Mild Learning Handicaps.
This book provides research as well as case studies of successful professional development strategies and practices for educators.
Joyce, B. R., & Showers, B. (2002). Student achievement through staff development. ASCD.
This paper reviews the relationship between monitoring implementation fidelity and student outcomes.
Kalafat, J., Illback, R. J., & Sanders, D. (2007). The relationship between implementation fidelity and educational outcomes in a school-based family support program: Development of a model for evaluating multidimensional full-service programs. Evaluation & Program Planning, 30(2), 136-148.
The Kansas State Board of Education's Quality Performance Accreditation system is described. Unlike past accreditation methods, which focused on the facilities or institutional characteristics, Quality Performance Accreditation accredits schools based on student performance.
Kansas State Board of Education (199). Kansas Quality Performance Accreditation. Topeka: Author.
Now thoroughly updated in its second edition, acclaimed author Alan Kazdin's Single-Case Research Designs provides a notable contrast to the quantitative methodology approach that pervades the biological and social sciences.
Kazdin, A. E. (2011). Single-case research designs: Methods for clinical and applied settings. Oxford University Press.
The present study examined the effectiveness of two different school-home notes for increasing academic productivity and appropriate classroom behavior in five inattentive children.
Kelley, M. L., & McCain, A. P. (1995). Promoting academic performance in inattentive children: The relative efficacy of school-home notes with and without response cost. Behavior Modification, 19(3), 357-375.
The current paper reviews empirical research describing assessment-based antecedent interventions implemented in natural settings. Descriptive information is provided along a number of dimensions pertaining to participant characteristics, assessment utilized, and intervention attributes
Kern, L., Choutka, C. M., & Sokol, N. G. (2002). Assessment-based antecedent interventions used in natural settings to reduce challenging behavior: An analysis of the literature. Education & Treatment of Children, 25(1), 113.
In this article, we describe analyses of assessment-based curricular modifications designed to improve the classroom behavior of elementary school students with emotional and behavioral disorders.
Kern, L., Delaney, B., Clarke, S., Dunlap, G., & Childs, K. (2001). Improving the classroom behavior of students with emotional and behavioral disorders using individualized curricular modifications. Journal of Emotional and behavioral Disorders, 9(4), 239-247.
this study presents and apply a framework for measuring the cost of coaching programs to 3 schools. Then the study discusses strategies for reducing the average cost of instructional coaching.
Knight, D. S. (2012). Assessing the cost of instructional coaching. Journal of Education Finance, 52-80.
The education policy community is abuzz with interest in value-added modeling as a way to estimate the effectiveness of schools and especially teachers. Value-added models provide useful information, but that information is error-prone and has a number of other important limitations.
Koretz, D. (2008). A measured approach. American Educator, 32(2), 18-39.
This study evaluated the extent to which the large performance gains shown on KIRIS represented real improvements in student learning rather than inflation of scores.
Koretz, D. M., & Barron, S. I. (1998). The validity of gains on the Kentucky instructional results information system. KIRIS). Santa Monica: RAND.
The research reported here investigated the effects of Maryland School Performance Assessment Program (MSPAP) by surveying teachers and principals in two of the three grades in which MSPAP is administered.
Koretz, D., Mitchell, K., Barron, S., & Keith, S. (1996). The perceived effects of the Maryland school performance assessment program. Los Angeles, CA: Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Assessment (University of California at Los Angeles).
This study review the empirical literature on teacher coaching and conduct meta-analyses to estimate the mean effect of coaching programs on teachers’ instructional practice and students’ academic achievement.
Kraft, M. A., Blazar, D., & Hogan, D. (2018). The effect of teacher coaching on instruction and achievement: A meta-analysis of the causal evidence. Review of Educational Research, 88(4), 547-588.
Examined the effects of training in behavioral consultation (BEC) on school psychology graduate students and on client outcomes. 169 children (aged 3–11 yrs), 29 teachers/consultees, and 26 consultants participated.
Kratochwill, T. R., Elliott, S. N., & Busse, R. T. (1995). Behavior consultation: A five-year evaluation of consultant and client outcomes. School Psychology Quarterly, 10(2), 87.
Monitoring the effects of an intervention is practice-based evidence about the effects of an evidence-based practice. This paper suggests considerations for developing monitoring systems.
Kratochwill, T. R., Hoagwood, K. E., Kazak, A. E., Weisz, J. R., Hood, K., Vargas, L. A., & Banez, G. A. (2012). Practice-Based Evidence for Children and Adolescents: Advancing the Research Agenda in Schools. School Psychology Review, 41(2), 215-235.
The authors conducted a comprehensive review of research to identify the impact of coaching on changes in preservice and in-service teachers’ implementation of evidence-based practices.
Kretlow, A. G., & Bartholomew, C. C. (2010). Using coaching to improve the fidelity of evidence-based practices: A review of studies. Teacher Education and Special Education, 33(4), 279-299.
This study examined the effects of in-service plus follow-up coaching on first grade teachers’ accurate delivery of three research-based strategies during math instruction.
Kretlow, A. G., Cooke, N. L., & Wood, C. L. (2012). Using in-service and coaching to increase teachers’ accurate use of research-based strategies. Remedial and Special Education, 33(6), 348-361.
This study examined the effects of in-service support plus coaching on kindergarten teachers’ accurate delivery of group instructional units in math.
Kretlow, A. G., Wood, C. L., & Cooke, N. L. (2011). Using in-service and coaching to increase kindergarten teachers’ accurate delivery of group instructional units. The Journal of Special Education, 44(4), 234-246.
The seven guiding principles in this manuscript offer research-based directions for literacy coaching.
L’Allier, S., Elish-Piper, L., & Bean, R. M. (2011). What matters for elementary literacy coaching? Guiding principles for instructional improvement and student achievement. The Reading Teacher, 63,544-554. doi: 10.1598/RT.63.7.2
Three questions are addressed. First, what are the principles behind creating optimal teacher incentives, and how close do the actual structures in Sweden and the US conform to the ideal ones? Second, how much is performance affected by creating incentives for current teachers, and how much by changing the pool of teacher applicants? Third, do teacher preferences align with those of their students and of society in general, and if not, why not? Associated with each of these questions are policy implications that may remedy existing distortions.
Lazear, E. P. (2003). Teacher incentives. Swedish Economic Policy Review, 10(2), 179-214.
Presents a conceptual model of strong school-based interventions. It is suggested that all of these concepts must be practically utilized if strong interventions are to be applied to school problems. Suggestions and implications for school psychology practitioners are discussed.
Lentz Jr, F. E., Allen, S. J., & Ehrhardt, K. E. (1996). The conceptual elements of strong interventions in school settings. School Psychology Quarterly, 11(2), 118.
This chapter will review the issues and effects of externally managed behavioral procedures applied to the reduction of undesirable behavior of regular or mildly handicapped children in school settings.
Lentz, F. E. (1988). Reductive procedures. In Handbook of behavior therapy in education (pp. 439-468). Springer, Boston, MA.
The authors attempted to determine the prevalence of the extinction burst in applied research and its possible attenuation with other operant procedures.
Lerman, D. C., & Iwata, B. A. (1995). Prevalence of the extinction burst and its attenuation during treatment. Journal of applied behavior analysis, 28(1), 93-94.
It is argued that there is a need to rethink the criteria by which the quality of educational assessments are judged and a set of criteria that are sensitive to some of the expectations for performancebased assessments are proposed
Linn, R. L., Baker, E. L., & Dunbar, S. B. (1991). Complex, performance-based assessment: Expectations and validation criteria. Educational researcher, 20(8), 15-21.
Using longitudinal data from a cohort of middle school students from a large school district,
we estimate separate “value‐added” teacher effects for two subscales of a mathematics
assessment under a variety of statistical models varying in form and degree of control for
student background characteristics.
Lockwood, J. R., McCaffrey, D. F., Hamilton, L. S., Stecher, B., Le, V. N., & Martinez, J. F. (2007). The sensitivity of value‐added teacher effect estimates to different mathematics achievement measures. Journal of Educational Measurement, 44(1), 47-67.
This book provides effective techniques for pinpointing the causes of challenging behaviors, identifying alternate approached, and adapting instructional routines.
Luiselli, J. K., & Cameron, M. J. (Eds.). (1998). Antecedent control: Innovative approaches to behavioral support. Paul H Brookes Publishing Company.
This paper reviews important factors to consider when designing behavioral interventions based on the operant function of the behavior disorder. Considerations for intervention selection for the four major operant functions of behavior disorders (attention, tangibles, escape, and automatic reinforcement) are presented in the context of matching theory.
Mace, F. C., & Roberts, M. L. (1993). Factors affecting selection of behavioral interventions.
In this article, guidelines for evaluating the technical adequacy of that process are described. The guidelines highlight the interdependencies among assessment functions, subsumed by the goal of helping, and the role of structural factors (e.g., collaboration) in shaping the meaningfulness, appropriateness, and usefulness of the assessment-intervention process.
Macmann, G. M., Barnett, D. W., Allen, S. J., Bramlett, R. K., Hall, J. D., & Ehrhardt, K. E. (1996). Problem solving and intervention design: Guidelines for the evaluation of technical adequacy. School Psychology Quarterly, 11(2), 137.
This programed text includes a self-test of its contents and demonstrates hoe to specify instructional objectives by behavior observable in a leraner, and how to write objectives, define desired terminal behavior, and state criteria of successful learning.
Mager, R. F. (1962). Preparing instructional objectives.
This study presents such an approach where the impact of regular and special education on 11 mildly handicapped children is studied by analyzing their slope of improvement on weekly curriculum-based measures (CBM) reading scores.
Marston, D. (1988). The effectiveness of special education: A time series analysis of reading performance in regular and special education settings. The Journal of Special Education, 21(4), 13-26.
there exists a serious need to examine alternative testing models for making educational decisions. in this chapter, this need is documented from the perspective that the traditional model has failed education in two major ways, from the technical level and from a social policy level. curriculum-based measurement procedures are proposed to redress some of the issues in these domains
Marston, D. B. (1989). A curriculum-based measurement approach to assessing academic performance: What it is and why do it. In M. R. Shinn (Ed.), The Guilford school practitioner series. Curriculum-based measurement: Assessing special children (pp. 18-78). New York, NY, US: Guilford Press.
In a series of two studies, the relative sensitivity of traditional standardized achievement tests and alternative curriculum-based measures was assessed.
Marston, D., Fuchs, L. S., & Deno, S. L. (1986). Measuring pupil progress: A comparison of standardized achievement tests and curriculum-related measures. Diagnostique, 11(2), 77-90.
Characterizes classroom instruction (CRI) from a behavior analytic perspective. It is argued that effective teaching strategies also serve managerial functions through the development of stimulus control and the management of behavioral choice.
Martens, B. K., & Kelly, S. Q. (1993). A behavioral analysis of effective teaching. School Psychology Quarterly, 8(1), 10.
This paper discusses the benefits of using brief experimental analyses to aid in treatment selection, identifies the forms of treatment that are most appropriate for this type of analysis, and describes key design elements for comparing 2 or more treatments efficiently.
Martens, B. K., Eckert, T. L., Bradley, T. A., & Ardoin, S. P. (1999). Identifying effective treatments from a brief experimental analysis: Using single-case design elements to aid decision making. School Psychology Quarterly, 14(2), 163.
The authors examined the effects of goal setting and feedback applied to teacher behavior as a means of producing desired changes in students' behavior during consultation.
Martens, B. K., Hiralall, A. S., & Bradley, T. A. (1997). A note to teacher: Improving student behavior through goal setting and feedback. School Psychology Quarterly, 12(1), 33.
This study demonstrates mathematically that the use of such “construct-shifting” vertical scales in longitudinal, value-added models introduces remarkable distortions in the value-added estimates of the majority of educators
Martineau, J. A. (2006). Distorting value-added: The use of longitudinal, vertically scaled student achievement data for growth-based, value-added accountability. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, 31(1), 35–62.
This study examines the effect of a comprehensive literacy-coaching program focused on enacting a discussion-based approach to reading comprehension instruction (content-focused coaching [CFC]) on the quality of classroom text discussions over 2 years.
Matsumura, L. C., Garnier, H.E., Spybrook, J. (2012). The effect of content-focused coaching on the quality of classroom text discussions. Journal of Teacher Education, 63,214-228.
Mayer, G. R. (1995). Preventing antisocial behavior in the schools. Journal of applied behavior analysis, 28(4), 467-478.
In this study, we conducted an analysis of the reinforcement and extinction components of DRO while treating the self-injury of 3 women with developmental disabilities.
Mazaleski, J. L., Iwata, B. A., Vollmer, T. R., Zarcone, J. R., & Smith, R. G. (1993). Analysis of the reinforcement and extinction components in DRO contingencies with self‐injury. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 26(2), 143-156.
In this brief, we discuss what is and is not known about how well value‐added measures level the playing field for teachers by controlling for student characteristics.
McCaffrey, D. F. (2012). Do value-added methods level the playing field for teachers. Carnegie Knowledge Network.
In this brief, we discuss the challenges of using value-added to evaluate teachers of students with disabilities.
McCaffrey, D. F., & Buzick, H. (2014). Is value-added accurate for teachers of students with disabilities. Carnegie Knowledge Network Brief, (14).
The current study extends recent value-added modeling approaches for longitudinal student achievement data Lockwood et al. [J. Educ. Behav. Statist. 32 (2007) 125–150] to allow data to be missing not at random via random effects selection and pattern mixture models, and applies those methods to data from a large urban school district to estimate effects of elementary school mathematics teachers.
McCaffrey, D. F., & Lockwood, J. R. (2011). Missing data in value-added modeling of teacher effects. The Annals of Applied Statistics, 773-797.
Value added modeling has become of interest to policymakers interested in evaluating teacher performance. The authors argue that the models work well when the schools in the sample are homogenous but as heterogeneity of the student population increases estimates of teacher effects are likely to confounded.
McCaffrey, D. F., Lockwood, J. R., Koretz, D. M., & Hamilton, L. S. (2003). Evaluating Value-Added Models for Teacher Accountability. Monograph. ERIC. Retrieved from http://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED529961
This paper presents two studies of factors affecting developmental outcomes of young children exposed prenatally to drugs and alcohol.
McConnell, S. R., Rush, K. L., McEvoy, M. A., Carta, J., Atwater, J., & Williams, R. (2002). Descriptive and experimental analysis of child-caregiver interactions that promote development of young children exposed prenatally to drugs and alcohol. Journal of Behavioral Education, 11(3), 131-161.
We examined the effect of a teaching method on skill fluency and on-task endurance of a 9-year-old boy who had been diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
McDowell, C., & Keenan, M. (2001). Developing fluency and endurance in a child diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 34(3), 345-348.
Suggests that R. Herrnstein's (1970) mathematical statement of the law of effect improves on Skinner's view of reinforcement by asserting (a) that response rate varies hyperbolically with reinforcement rate and (b) that responding is governed not only by reinforcement obtained for responding but also by reinforcement obtained from all other concurrent sources.
McDowell, J. J. (1982). The importance of Herrnstein's mathematical statement of the law of effect for behavior therapy. American Psychologist, 37(7), 771.
This study examined the extent to which competence in applying behavioral procedures (timeout from positive reinforcement) was sufficient to establish competence in teaching others to apply the same procedures.
McGimsey, J. F., Greene, B. F., & Lutzker, J. R. (1995). Competence in aspects of behavioral treatment and consultation: Implications for service delivery and graduate training. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 28(3), 301-315.
this chapter is based on the following premise: that variables operative in the classroom environment, such as the specific behaviors of the teacher and the manner in which the classroom is arranged (e.g., seating arrangement, noise level), influence student behavior and student learning
McKee, W. T., & Witt, J. C. (1990). Effective teaching: A review of instructional and environmental variables.
The purpose of this chapter is to describe a critical component of the response-to-
intervention (RTI) process: monitoring student response to general education instruction.
McMaster, K. L., & Wagner, D. (2007). Monitoring response to general education instruction. In Handbook of response to intervention (pp. 223-233). Springer, Boston, MA.
This study documents the implementation of research-based strategies to minimize the occurrence of reading difficulties in a first-grade population. Three strategies were implemented.
Menzies, H. M, Mahdavi, J. N., & Lewis, J. L. (2008). Early intervention in reading: From research to practice. Remedial and Special Education, 29(2), 67-77.
This paper reports on the results of the analysis of an additional year of evaluation and student achievement data at some research.
Milanowski, A. T., Kimball, S. M., & White, B. (2004). The Relationship Between Standards-Based Teacher Evaluation Scores and Student Achievement: Replication and Extensions at Three Sites Consortium for Policy Research in Education (CPRE)-University of Wisconsin Working Paper Series. TC, 4(01).
The purpose of this paper is to review studies that have used instructional variables as nonaversive interventionsfor problem behaviors.
Munk, D. D., & Repp, A. C. (1994). The relationship between instructional variables and problem behavior: A review. Exceptional children, 60(5), 390-401.
How important are teenagers' cognitive skills in predicting subsequent labor market success? Do cognitive skills pay off in the labor market only for students who go to college? Does college benefit only students who enter with strong basic skills? These questions are often part of current policy debates about how to improve the earnings prospects for young Americans.
Murnane, R. J., Willett, J. B., Duhaldeborde, Y., & Tyler, J. H. (2000). How important are the cognitive skills of teenagers in predicting subsequent earnings?. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 19(4), 547-568.
This report is concerned with only one of the many causes and dimensions of the problem, but it is the one that undergirds American prosperity, security, and civility.
National Commission on Excellence in Educatio. (1984). A nation at Risk: The full Account. Cambridge, MA: USA Research.
This paper is designed to help educators understand research findings on promising interventions for students with a history of behavior problems. It reviews programs for preventing such problems from recurring among children and adolescents with chronic antisocial behavior.
National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities (1999). Interventions for Chronic Behavior Problems. Washington, DC: Author.
This paper reviews the concept of treatment utility and asks the question how can assessment lead to improved outcomes.
Nelson-Gray, R. O. (2003). Treatment Utility of Psychological Assessment. Psychological Assessment, 15(4).
This study examines the impact of 2 forms of professional development on prekindergarten teachers' early language and literacy practice: coursework and coaching.
Neuman, S. B., & Wright, T. S. (2010). Promoting language and literacy development for early childhood educators: A mixed-methods study of coursework and coaching. Elementary School Journal, 11,63-86. No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, P.L. 107-110, 20 U.S.C. § 6319 (2002).
No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 ESEA Reauthorization
No child left behind act of 2001. Publ. L, 107-110. (2002)
This synthesis is described under the rubric of functional outcome analysis (FOA) and is organized around an examination of classroom resources. Various methods of assessing intervention costs and benefits, as well as their distribution, are described.
Noell, G. H., & Gresham, F. M. (1993). Functional outcome analysis: Do the benefits of consultation and prereferral intervention justify the costs?. School Psychology Quarterly, 8(3), 200.
This study examined three strategies for assessing compliance in students (aged 5 yrs) whose speech and language development were delayed.
Noell, G. H., VanDerHeyden, A. M., Gatti, S. L., & Whitmarsh, E. L. (2001). Functional assessment of the effects of escape and attention on students' compliance during instruction. School Psychology Quarterly, 16(3), 253.
This study compared two strategies for increasing accurate responding on a low-preference academic task by interspersing presentations of a preferred academic task.
Noell, G. H., Whitmarsh, E. L., VanDerHeyden, A. M., Gatti, S. L., & Slider, N. J. (2003). Sequencing instructional tasks: A comparison of contingent and noncontingent interspersal of preferred academic tasks. Behavior modification, 27(2), 191-216.
The usefulness of functional analysis procedures for the assessment and treatment of behaviors associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder has been the subject of a number of recent investigations. This article provides a selected review of recent studies and examines potential implications for practice.
Northup, J., & Gulley, V. (2001). Some Contributions of Functional Analysis to the Assessment of Behaviors Associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and the Effects of Stimulant Medication. School Psychology Review, 30(2).
This article describes a school-wide system of early identification and intervention for children placed at risk for school success and discusses how schools might implement the recommendations offered in the literature.
O'Shaughnessy, T. E., Lane, K. L., Gresham, F. M., & Beebe-Frankenberger, M. E. (2003). Children placed at risk for learning and behavioral difficulties: Implementing a school-wide system of early identification and intervention. Remedial and Special Education, 24(1), 27-35.
This is our most widely adopted classroom management book. It provides an overview of what teaching is all about—focusing on the important management skills every teacher needs. The authors stress that these procedures will help prevent problem behaviors, keep students on task, and make the best use of everyone's time and energy.
Paine, S. C. (1983). Structuring your classroom for academic success. Research PressPub.
Two instructional studies directed at the comprehension-fostering and comprehension-monitoringactivitiesof seventhgrade poor comprehendersare reported
Palinscar, A. S., & Brown, A. L. (1984). Reciprocal teaching of comprehension-fostering and comprehension-monitoring activities. Cognition and instruction, 1(2), 117-175.
There is increased interest in extending the test-based evaluation framework in K-12 education to achievement in high school. High school achievement is typically measured by performance on end-of-course exams (EOCs), which test course-specific standards in subjects including algebra, biology, English, geometry, and history, among others. Recent research indicates that when students take particular courses can have important consequences for achievement and subsequent outcomes. The contribution of the present study is to develop an approach for modeling EOC test performance regarding the timing of course.
Parsons, E., Koedel, C., Podgursky, M., Ehlert, M., & Xiang, P. B. (2015). Incorporating end-of-course exam timing into educational performance evaluations. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 8(1), 130-147.
In 1986, the senior author called attention to the possibility of transferring behavioral technologies to the larger culture for the benefit of that culture. The present paper is an attempt to supplement that presentation with a set of proposals that were at best implicit and were perhaps missing entirely from the earlier effort.
Pennypacker, H. S., & Hench, L. L. (1997). Making behavioral technology transferable. The Behavior Analyst, 20(2), 97-108.
Describes a general outcome measure for tracking preschoolers language and preliteracy development.
Phaneuf, R. L., & Silberglitt, B. (2003). Tracking Preschoolers’ Language and Preliteracy Development Using a General Outcome Measurement System. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 23(3), 114-123.
The Every Student Succeeds Act: Explained.
Plans, A. (2015). The every student succeeds act: Explained. Education Week.
Effects of a 1-semester professional development (PD) intervention that included expert coaching with Head Start teachers were investigated in a randomized controlled trial with 88 teachers and 759 children.
Powell, D. R., Diamond, K. E., Burchinal, M. R., & Koehler, M. J. (2010). Effects of an early literacy professional development intervention on Head Start teachers and children. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102, 299-312.
Presents a summary of the research that resulted in the development of organizational behavior management (OBM) as a specialty area as well as its procedural technology. The relationship of OBM to other supervisory and management approaches that are common in the human services is described.
Reid, D. H., & Parsons, M. B. (2000). Organizational behavior management in human service settings.
This study evaluted the impact of coaching on the implementation of an intervention. Coaching with higher rates of performance feedback resulted in the highest level of treatment integrity.
Reinke, W., Stormont, M., Herman, K., & Newcomer, L. (2014). Using Coaching to Support Teacher Implementation of Classroom-based Interventions. Journal of Behavioral Education, 23(1), 150-167.
An alternating treatments design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational program that combined timings (via chess clocks), peer tutoring (i.e., peer-delivered immediate feedback), positive-practice overcorrection, and performance feedback on mathematics fluency (i.e., speed of accurate responding) in four elementary students with mathematics skills deficits.
Rhymer, K. N., Dittmer, K. I., Skinner, C. H., & Jackson, B. (2000). Effectiveness of a multi-component treatment for improving mathematics fluency. School Psychology Quarterly, 15(1), 40.
This paper disentangles the impact of schools and teachers in influencing achievement with special attention given to the potential problems of omitted or mismeasured variables and of student and school selection.
Rivkin, S. G., Hanushek, E. A., & Kain, J. F. (2005). Teachers, schools, and academic achievement. Econometrica, 73(2), 417-458.
The author develop falsification tests for three widely used VAM specifications, based on the idea that future teachers cannot influence students' past achievement.
Rothstein, J. (2010). Teacher quality in educational production: Tracking, decay, and student achievement. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 125(1), 175-214.
Most children with autism rely on schools as their primary source of intervention, yet research has suggested that teachers rarely use evidence-based practices. To address the need for improved educational outcomes, a previously tested consultation intervention called the Collaborative Model for Promoting Competence and Success was evaluated in a 2nd randomized controlled trial, with the addition of a web-based group.
Ruble, L. A., McGrew, J. H., Toland, M. D., Dalrymple, N. J., & Jung, L. (2013). A randomized controlled trial of COMPASS web-based and face-to-face teacher coaching in autism. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 81, 566-572.
The present paper discusses three design options potentially useful for the investigation of response maintenance. These include: (a) the sequential-withdrawal, (b) the partial-withdrawal, and (c) the partial-sequential withdrawal designs. Each design is illustrated and potential limitations are discussed.
Rusch, F. R., & Kazdin, A. E. (1981). Toward a methodology of withdrawal designs for the assessment of response maintenance. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 14(2), 131-140.
The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate a series of program variables used to modify the time a subject spent attending in an experimental restaurant setting.
Rusch, F. R., Connis, R. T., & Sowers, J. A. (1978). The modification and maintenance of time spent attending using social reinforcement, token reinforcement and response cost in an applied restaurant setting. Journal of Special Education Technology, 2(1), 18-26.
Using data from 35 seventh-grade teachers and 2,026 students across seven schools, we employ VA methods to measure teacher contributions to students’ motivational orientations (mastery and performance achievement goals) and their mathematics performance.
Ruzek, E. A., Domina, T., Conley, A. M., Duncan, G. J., & Karabenick, S. A. (2015). Using value-added models to measure teacher effects on students’ motivation and achievement. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 35(5-6), 852-882.
In this article, we describe and report on the results of a study in Texas that tested 2 models of professional development for classroom teachers as a way of improving their practices and increasing the reading achievement of their students.
Sailors, M., & Price, L. (2010). Professional development for cognitive reading strategy instruction. Elementary School Journal, 110,301-323.
In an experimental assessment of a choral responding procedure for increasing children's response to teacher commands, decreased levels of off-task behavior, as well as increased levels of correct responding, resulted from the procedures for three handicapped preschool children during large group instruction.
Sainato, D. M., Strain, P. S., & Lyon, S. R. (1987). Increasing academic responding of handicapped preschool children during group instruction. Journal of the Division for Early Childhood, 12(1), 23-30.
This study examined the effects of a self-evaluation treatment package on the independent work skills of preschool children with disabilities.
Sainato, D. M., Strain, P. S., Lefebvre, D., & Rapp, N. (1990). Effects of self-evaluation on the independent work skills of preschool children with disabilities. Exceptional Children, 56(6), 540-549.
The Tennessee Value-Added Assessment System determines the effectiveness of school systems, schools, and teachers based on student academic growth over time.
Sanders, W. L., & Horn, S. P. (1998). Research findings from the Tennessee Value-Added Assessment System (TVAAS) database: Implications for educational evaluation and research. Journal of Personnel Evaluation in Education, 12(3), 247-256.
First published in 1971, the book challenged many major assumptions about institutional change and examined efforts to implement Public Law 94-142 (Education for All Handicapped Children) into public schools. The book argued that federal efforts to restructure education were generally a failure.
Sarason, S. B. (1996). Revisiting" The culture of the school and the problem of change". Teachers College Press.
The authors conducted descriptive and experimental analyses of aberrant behavior in school settings with 2 children with autism, using teachers as assessors. Experimental functional analyses carried out by the investigators were followed by training teachers to conduct a descriptive analysis and a classroom experimental analysis.
Sasso, G. M., Reimers, T. M., Cooper, L. J., Wacker, D., Berg, W., Steege, M., ... & Allaire, A. (1992). Use of descriptive and experimental analyses to identify the functional properties of aberrant behavior in school settings. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 25(4), 809-821.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of multilevel support on first-grade teachers' accurate use of research-based strategies during beginning reading instruction and the extent to which teachers maintained use of these strategies.
Schnorr, C. I. (2013). Effects of multilevel support on first-grade teachers' use of research-based strategies during beginning reading instruction (Doctoral dissertation, The University of North Carolina at Charlotte).
This article presents an example of how school time was monitored to facilitate a cost analysis of school-wide systems of positive behavior support (PBS).
Scott, T. M., & Barrett, S. B. (2004). Using staff and student time engaged in disciplinary procedures to evaluate the impact of school-wide PBS. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 6(1), 21-27.
This article describes an innovative teaching model designed to impact students at risk with the cooperative efforts of regular and special education in Grades K-3.
Self, H., Benning, A., Marston, D., & Magnusson, D. (1991). Cooperative teaching project: A model for students at risk. Exceptional Children, 58(1), 26-34.
This popular practitioner guide and text presents an effective, problem-solving-based approach to evaluating and remediating academic skills problems. The author provides practical strategies for working with students across all grade levels (K–12) who are struggling with reading, spelling, written language, or math.
Shapiro, E. S. (2011). Academic skills problems: Direct assessment and intervention. Guilford Press.
The assessment of children and adolescents from a behavioral perspective has evolved into a state-of-the-art practice among school professionals. this landmark text was the first to address systematically the issues involved in developing behavioral assessment strategies for educational-rather than clinical-settings.
Shapiro, E. S., & Kratochwill, T. R. (Eds.). (2000). Behavioral assessment in schools: Theory, research, and clinical foundations. Guilford Press.
Part of the president Bush strategy for the transformation of "American Schools" lies in an accountability system that would track progress toward the nation's education goals as well as provide the impetus for reform. Here we focus primarily on issues of accountability and student achievement.
Shavelson, R. J., Baxter, G. P., & Pine, J. (1992). Research news and comment: Performance assessments: Political rhetoric and measurement reality. Educational Researcher, 21(4), 22-27.
In today's political climate, standardized tests are inadequate and misleading as achievement measures. Educators should employ a variety of measures, improve standardized test content and format, and remove incentives for teaching to the test. Focusing on raising test scores distorts instruction and renders scores less credible. Includes 13 references.
Shepard, L. A. (1989). Why We Need Better Assessments. Educational leadership, 46(7), 4-9.
Used a multiple baseline design to evaluate teacher-only consultation (TOC) and conjoint behavioral consultation (CBC) in their ability to produce cross-setting behavioral change in the social initiations (SIs) of 4 withdrawn children (aged 9–12 yrs). Direct observation, rating scale, and self-report data were collected from various sources across settings.
Sheridan, S. M., Kratochwill, T. R., & Elliott, S. N. (1990). Behavioral consultation with parents and teachers: Delivering treatment for socially withdrawn children at home and school. School Psychology Review.
Shinn, M. R. (1995). Best practices in curriculum-based measurement and its use in a problem-solving model. Best practices in school psychology III, 547-567.
The purpose of this chapter is to understand the reasons why categorical assessment and identification for students with severe achievement needs is indefensible. Then, to provide a viable alternative to expedite the assessment and decisionmaking process of educators when they are confronted with students with severe achievement needs
Shinn, M., Good, R., & Parker, C. (1998). Noncategorical special education services with students with severe achievement deficits. Functional and noncategorical identification and intervention in special education, 65-83.
The authors examined the effectiveness of functional communication training (FCT) in reducing self-injurious behavior (SIB) and in shaping an alternative (communicative) response while SIB continued to be reinforced.
Shirley, M. J., Iwata, B. A., Kahng, S., Mazaleski, J. L., & Lerman, D. C. (1997). Does functional communication training compete with ongoing contingencies of reinforcement? An analysis during response acquisition and maintenance. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 30(1), 93-104.
The concept of reinforcer substitutability proposes a continuum of interactions among reinforcers in a given situation. At one end of this continuum, reinforcers are substitutable, with one reinforcer being readily traded for another. The authors conducted an analysis of reinforcers that were substitutable with those produced by self-injurious behavior (SIB).
Shore, B. A., Iwata, B. A., DeLeon, I. G., Kahng, S., & Smith, R. G. (1997). An analysis of reinforcer substitutability using object manipulation and self‐injury as competing responses. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 30(1), 21-41.
Discussing the major themes of replication, variability, and experimental design, Sidman describes the step-by-step planning of experiments, the need for constant attention to trends of incoming data, and the alteration of plan, method, or design that those trends sometimes make necessary
Sidman, M. (1960). Tactics of Scientific Research: Evaluating Experimental Data in Psychology. Boston: Authors Cooperative.
The authors evaluated an intervention package for increasing requesting opportunities in special education classrooms. This study demonstrated an effective strategy for helping teachers incorporate opportunities for functional communication into the natural environment.
Sigafoos, J., Kerr, M., Roberts, D., & Couzens, D. (1994). Increasing opportunities for requesting in classrooms serving children with developmental disabilities. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 24(5), 631-645.
This paper discusses the nature of the crises in the college classroom. An identity crisis affects virtually all Americans in one way or another, but especially college student.
Silverman, C. (1970). Crisis in the classroom: The remaking of American education. New York: Vintage.
The case history in scientific method cited is autobiographical; Skinner relates certain relevant experiences in the development of some of his scientific contributions.
Skinner, B. F. (1956). A case history in scientific method. American Psychologist, 11(5), 221.
This paper describes several procedures that have been shown to improve learning rates without increasing time allocated for instruction during both teacher-led instruction and independent seat-work. In the description of interventions, they emphasize the learning mechanisms that may be operating to improve student achievement.
Skinner, C. H., Fletcher, P. A., & Henington, C. (1996). Increasing learning rates by increasing student response rates: A summary of research. School Psychology Quarterly, 11(4), 313.
Alternating treatments designs were used to compare on-task levels in 4 students diagnosed as emotionally disturbed while working on control and experimental independent seat-work mathematics assignments. Control and experimental assignments were similar except experimental assignments contained additional briefer mathematics problems interspersed following every third problem.
Skinner, C. H., Hurst, K. L., Teeple, D. F., & Meadows, S. O. (2002). Increasing on‐task behavior during mathematics independent seat‐work in students with emotional disturbance by interspersing additional brief problems. Psychology in the Schools, 39(6), 647-659.
This study evaluated an alternative method of identifying early reading difficulty. L. S. Fuchs and D. Fuchs (1998) proposed that academic problems could be indexed by a dual discrepancy on level and slope of performance, relative to classmates, on curriculum-based measurement tasks.
Speece, D. L., & Case, L. P. (2001). Classification in context: An alternative approach to identifying early reading disability. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93(4), 735.
The title of the address is " Ensuring Teaching and Learning in the 21st Century: What We Know and What We Need to Know From Research." The focus is on the plight of children. The author believes a partial solution is integrated comprehensive school-linked services.
Stallings, J. A. (1995). Ensuring teaching and learning in the 21st century. Educational Researcher, 24(6), 4-8.
This investigation contributed to previous research by separating the effects of simply making instructional changes, not based on student performance data, from the effects of making instructional changes in accordance with CBM data.
Stecker, P. M. (1995). Effects of instructional modifications with and without curriculum-based measurement on the mathematics achievement of students with mild disabilities.
Response to Intervention depends on regular, routine monitoring of student progress. This paper describes a multi-component approach to monitoring progress.
Stecker, P. M., Fuchs, D., & Fuchs, L. S. (2008). Progress Monitoring as Essential Practice Within Response to Intervention. Rural Special Education Quarterly, 27(4), 10-17.
The authors propose a model for using curriculum-based measurement to monitor and improve student achievement.
Stecker, P. M., Lembke, E. S., & Foegen, A. (2008). Using Progress-Monitoring Data to Improve Instructional Decision Making. Preventing School Failure, 52(2), 48-58.
the authors examine how the five profiled systems are addressing assessment quality, evaluating teachers in nontested subjects and grades, and assigning teachers responsibility for particular students. The authors also examine what is and is not known about the quality of various student performance measures used by school systems.
Steele, J. L., Hamilton, L. S., & Stecher, B. M. (2010). Incorporating Student Performance Measures into Teacher Evaluation Systems. Technical Report. Rand Corporation.
This study compared indirect training and direct training methods as a means of impacting levels of treatment integrity. Direct training methods produced better outcomes.
Sterling-Turner, H. E., Watson, T. S., & Moore, J. W. (2002). The effects of direct training and treatment integrity on treatment outcomes in school consultation. School Psychology Quarterly, 17(1).
The classroom assessment procedures o f 36 teachers in grades 2 to 12 were studied in depth to determine the extent to which they measure students” higher order thinking skills in mathematics, science, social studies, and language arts.
Stiggins, RJ., Griswald, M., & Green, K. R. (1988). Measuring Thinking Skills Through Classroom Assessment. Paper presented at the 1988 annual meeting of the National Council on Measurement in Education, New Orleans, April.
In Part 1 of this 2-part article, the authors present historical, contextual, and methodological perspectives on the use of empirically supported interventions in school and community settings.
Stoiber, K. C., & Kratochwill, T. R. (2000). Empirically supported interventions and school psychology: Rationale and methodological issues—Part I. School Psychology Quarterly, 15(1), 75.
Four normal and four deviant children aged four-to-six years were taught to judge the quality of their academic work in a preschool classroom, and to prompt or cue their teachers to comment about the quality of that work.
Stokes, T. F., Fowler, S. A., & Baer, D. M. (1978). TRAINING PRESCHOOL CHILDREN TO RECRUIT NATURAL COMMUNITIES OF REINFORCEMENT 1. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 11(2), 285-303.
In this article, the authors describe key features of the multi-tiered support (MTS) continuum of intervention and assessment and present a case study to illustrate implementation of some components of the framework with four middle school teachers.
Sugai, G. (2014). Multitiered support framework for teachers’ classroom-management practices: Overview and case study of building the triangle for teachers. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 16(3), 179-190.
This report provides state and district policymakers in Texas with updated information on trends in teacher mobility and on correlates of mobility in the teaching workforce, offering a systematic baseline for monitoring and planning.
Sullivan, K., Barkowski, E., Lindsay, J., Lazarev, V., Nguyen, T., Newman, D., & Lin, L. (2017). Trends in teacher mobility in Texas and associations with teacher, student, and school characteristics. REL 2018–283.
The purpose of this article is to review the literature and examine the effect of increased opportunities to respond to academic requests (OTR) on academic and behavioral outcomes of students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD).
Sutherland, K. S., & Wehby, J. H. (2001). Exploring the relationship between increased opportunities to respond to academic requests and the academic and behavioral outcomes of students with EBD: A review. Remedial and Special Education, 22(2), 113-121.
This study examined the effectiveness of a classroom teacher intervention, the Targeted Reading Intervention (TRI), in helping struggling readers in kindergarten and first grade. This intervention used biweekly literacy coaching in the general education classroom to help classroom teachers use diagnostic strategies with struggling readers in one-on-one 15-min sessions.
Targeted reading intervention: A coaching model to help classroom teachers with struggling readers. Learning Disability Quarterly, 35, 102-114.
We examined whether, as predicted by research on child effects, we could generate hypotheses about the function of student problem behavior by observing the amount of attention teachers provided to students.
Taylor, J. C., & Romanczyk, R. G. (1994). Generating hypotheses about the function of student problem behavior by observing teacher behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 27(2), 251-265.
This chapter presents four sets of interrelated discussions. The rationale for and critical components underlying a problem-solving system; The concept of educational disability is clarified; Current and potential alternate processes of conferring educational disability status are considered; The implications of implementing a functional and noncategorical system are examined in relation to federal legal requirements.
Tilly, W. D., Reschly, D. J., & Grimes, J. (1999). Disability determination in problem solving systems: Conceptual foundations and critical components. Special education in transition: Functional assessment and noncategorical programming, 221-251.
"The Mirage" describes the widely held perception among education leaders that they already know how to help teachers improve, and that they could achieve their goal of great teaching in far more classrooms if they just applied what they knew more widely.
TNTP. (2015). The Mirage: Confronting the truth about our quest for teacher development. Retrieved from: https://tntp.org/publications/view/the-mirage-confronting-the-truth-about-our-quest-for-teacher-development
The authors examine the causes and consequences of the status of teacher evaluation and its implications for the current national debate about performance pay for teachers. The report also examines a number of national, state, and local evaluation systems that offer potential alternatives to current practice.
Toch, T., & Rothman, R. (2008). Rush to Judgment: Teacher Evaluation in Public Education. Education Sector Reports. Education Sector.
practitioners of behavior management & students who are just learning the basics of applied behavior analysis will find this new edition packed with useful information from the original version
Van Houten, R., & Hall, R. V. (2001). The measurement of behavior: Behavior modification. Pro-ed.
The goal of this study was to develop a brief assessment that could be conducted in the natural setting to identify naturally occurring, high-frequency subsequent events that may serve as maintaining consequences for disruptive behavior using the entire class as the unit of analysis. Procedures were conducted in two early childhood classrooms during regularly scheduled classroom activities.
VanDerHeyden, A. M., Witt, J. C., & Gatti, S. (2001). Descriptive Assessment Method to Reduce Overall Disruptive Behavior in a Preschool Classroom. School Psychology Review, 30(4).
This article describes efforts to examine the validity of a screening process that provides objective data for multidisciplinary team meetings where consideration is being given to teacher referral of a student for assessment and possible placement in special education.
VanDerHeyden, A. M., Witt, J. C., & Naquin, G. (2003). Development and validation of a process for screening referrals to special education. School Psychology Review, 32(2), 204-227.
In this study, the results of five training studies evaluating the effects of a coaching program for use in Dutch primary and secondary schools are described.
Veenman, S, & Denessen, E. (2001). The coaching of teachers: Results of five training studies.
Educational Research and Evaluation, 7(4), 385–417.
Reading impaired first graders were given daily tutoring as a "first cut" diagnostic to aid in distinguishing between reading difficulties caused by basic cognitive deficits and those caused by experiential deficits. Reading achievement in most of these children was found to be within or above the average range after one semester of remediation.
Vellutino, F. R., Scanlon, D. M., Sipay, E. R., Small, S. G., Pratt, A., Chen, R., & Denckla, M. B. (1996). Cognitive profiles of difficult-to-remediate and readily remediated poor readers: Early intervention as a vehicle for distinguishing between cognitive and experiential deficits as basic causes of specific reading disability. Journal of Educational Psychology, 88(4), 601.
Provides 2 hypothetical case examples that illustrate how single-case designs (alternating treatments, multiple baseline, and reversal) can be used to evaluate manipulable influences on school performance. In each case, an intervention plan is proposed for a student, and the success of the intervention is evaluated within a single-case design.
Wacker, D. P., Steege, M., & Berg, W. K. (1988). Use of single-case designs to evaluate manipulable influences on school performance. School Psychology Review.
This article provides a description of the First Step to Success early intervention program for preventing development of antisocial behavior patterns among young, at-risk children.
Walker, H. M., Severson, H. H., Feil, E. G., Stiller, B., & Golly, A. (1998). First step to success: Intervening at the point of school entry to prevent antisocial behavior patterns. Psychology in the Schools, 35(3), 259-269.
This kit presents the Systematic Screening for Behavior Disorders (SSBD) as a tool to identify behavior disorders in elementary-aged students. The kit contains a user's guide and administration manual, a technical manual reporting psychometric properties of the SSBD, an observer training manual, and multiple copies of the screening instruments.
Walker, H. M., Severson, H., & Feil, E. G. (1990). Systematic screening for behavior disorders (SSBD). Longmont, CO: Sopris West.
This article overview the conceptual foundations and underlying principles of FBA and the methods and procedures associated with conducting FBAs in school settings.
Watson, T. S., & Skinner, C. H. (2001). Functional behavioral assessment: Principles, procedures, and future directions. School Psychology Review, 30(2), 156-172.
This article presents some recommendations for employment and career-building by addressing two major vital to transition: competitive employment outcomes and postsecondary education.
Wehman, P. (2002). A new era: Revitalizing special education for children and their families. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 17(4), 194-197.
This report examines the pervasive and longstanding failure to recognize and respond to variations in the effectiveness of teachers.
Weisberg, D., Sexton, S., Mulhern, J., Keeling, D., Schunck, J., Palcisco, A., & Morgan, K. (2009). The widget effect: Our national failure to acknowledge and act on differences in teacher effectiveness. New Teacher Project.
U.S. public policy has increasingly been conceived, debated, and evaluated through the lenses of politics and ideology. The fundamental question -- Will the policy work? -- too often gets short shrift or even ignored. A remedy is an evidence-based policy--a rigorous approach that draws on careful data collection, experimentation, and both quantitative and qualitative analysis to determine what the problem is, which ways it can be addressed, and the probable impacts of each of these ways.
Wesley, P. W., & Buysse, V. (2006). Making the case for evidence- based policy. In V. Buysse & P. W. Wesley (Eds.), Evidence-based practice in the early childhood field (pp. 117–159). Washington, DC: Zero to Three.
This investigation focused on the effects of two independent variables; (a) teacher-developed goals and monitoring systems versus a curriculum-based measurement (CBM) goal and monitoring system; and (b) individual expert versus group follow-up consultation.
Wesson, C. L. (1990). Curriculum-based measurement and two models of follow-up consultation. Exceptional Children, 57(3), 246-256.
This article will describe a CBM which is very efficient and provides the teacher with adequate information for grouping and monitoring progress throughout the school year.
Wesson, C. L., Vierthaler, J. M., & Haubrich, P. A. (1989). An efficient technique for establishing reading groups. The Reading Teacher, 42(7), 466-469.
This paper presents four studies that examine the time required to implement direct and frequent curriculum-based measurement (CBM) as well as strategies to improve the efficiency of CBM. Ten rural special education resource teachers were the subjects.
Wesson, C., Fuchs, L., Tindal, E., Mirkin, P., & Deno, S. L. (1986). Facilitating the efficiency of on-going curriculum-based measurement. Teacher Education and Special Education, 9(4), 166-172.
The purpose of this study was to ascertain the effects of manipulating the data base used for instructional decision making on student achievement.
Wesson, C., Skiba, R., Sevcik, B., King, R. P., & Deno, S. (1984). The effects of technically adequate instructional data on achievement. Remedial and Special Education, 5(5), 17-22.
The relationships among independent variables and three measures of treatment integrity were evaluated.
Wickstrom, K. F., Jones, K. M., LaFleur, L. H., & Witt, J. C. (1998). An analysis of treatment integrity in school-based behavioral consultation. School Psychology Quarterly, 13(2), 141.
This study examined components of teacher judgements that an intervention is either acceptable or unacceptable. A total of 180 preservice and student teachers were asked to evaluate the acceptability of six different interventions.
Witt, J. C., & Martens, B. K. (1983). Assessing the acceptability of behavioral interventions used in classrooms. Psychology in the Schools, 20(4), 510-517.
This article provides a brief review and a critique of behavioral consultation. Specifically, the procedures utilized within BC for assessment of the problem, development of an intervention, implementation of the intervention, and plan evaluation are overly reliant on indirect methods of behavior assessment and behavior change.
Witt, J. C., Gresham, F. M., & Noell, G. H. (1996). What's behavioral about behavioral consultation. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation, 7(4), 327-344.
This study examined the integrity with which 4 general education teachers implemented an intervention designed to improve the academic performance of elementary school students. Treatment integrity was measured daily using permanent products.
Witt, J. C., Noell, G. H., Lafleur, L. H., & Mortenson, B. P. (1997). Teacher use of interventions in general education settings: Measurement and analysis of the independent variable. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 30(4), 693-696.
This research monograph offers early childhood educators a foundational resource of information needed to develop inclusion practices.
Wolery, M., & Wilbert, J. S. (1994). Including Children with Special Needs in Early Childhood Programs. Research Monograph of the National Association for the Education of Young Children, Volume 6. National Association for the Education of Young Children, 1509 16th Street, NW, Washington, DC 20036 (Order No. 145, $8 each; 5-49 copies, 10% discount; 50-99 copies, 20% discount; over 100 copies, 25% discount; orders under $20 must be prepaid)..
Due to the increased need to support teachers' use of evidence-based practices in multi-tiered systems of support such as RTI [Response to Intervention] and PBIS [Positive Behavior Interventions and Support], coaching can extend and strengthen professional development. This paper describes a multi-level approach to coaching and provides implications for practice and research.
Wood, C. L., Goodnight, C. I., Bethune, K. S., Preston, A. I., Cleaver, S. L. (2016). Role of professional development and multi-level coaching in promoting evidence-based practice in education. Learning Disabilities: A Contemporary Journal, 14,159-170.
This study compares the effect size and return on investment for rapid assessment, between, increased spending, voucher programs, charter schools, and increased accountability.
Yeh, S. S. (2007). The cost-effectiveness of five policies for improving student achievement. American Journal of Evaluation, 28(4), 416-436.
The author compares the effectiness of comprehensive school reform relative to rapid progress monitoring. Progress monitoring results in much greater benefit than comprehensive school reform.
Yeh, S. S. (2008). The Cost-Effectiveness of Comprehensive School Reform and Rapid Assessment. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 16(13), 1-32.
The purpose of this study is to examine research to answer the question, What is the impact of teacher professional development on student achievement.
Yoon, K. S., Duncan, T., Lee, S. W. Y., Scarloss, B., & Shapley, K. L. (2007). Reviewing the Evidence on How Teacher Professional Development Affects Student Achievement. Issues & Answers. REL 2007-No. 033. Regional Educational Laboratory Southwest (NJ1).
In this study, the reliability of the MAS was reexamined with two independent groups of developmentally disabled individuals who exhibited SIB (N = 55).
Zarcone, J. R., Rodgers, T. A., Iwata, B. A., Rourke, D. A., & Dorsey, M. F. (1991). Reliability analysis of the Motivation Assessment Scale: A failure to replicate. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 12(4), 349-360.