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The Teaching-Family Model: A case study in data-based program development and refinement (and dragon wrestling)

A case study in program development and refinement is presented. We describe the
Teaching-Family model and its history, the original research goal of developing a community-
based program that was more humane, more effective in teaching communityliving skills,
and less expensive than the traditional large state institutions prevalent when we began. 

Functional Family Therapy.

The functional family therapy approach described in this book, a synthesis of interpersonal, behavioral, and systems orientations, represents a new evolutionary step in the treatment of families. The goal of this book is to provide a clear description of the procedures and structure necessary for the successful practice of family therapy. 

Alexander, J., & Parsons, B. V. (1982). Functional family therapy. Monterey, CA, US: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company.

A Review of the Relationship Between Parental Involvement Indicators and Academic Achievement

This review examines the relationship between parental involvement and student academic achievement. The definition of parental involvement isn’t always clear and encompasses a wide range of parental interventions and involvement in a child’s education. Two types of parental involvement are generally examined in the available research: home-based strategies, such as providing structure and support for learning and education at home, and school-based strategies, such as communicating with teachers and attending school events.The strongest associations with improved student performance across all grades were parental expectations and aspirations. The review also concluded that parental involvement and academic achievement do not diminish as children grow into young adulthood. What does change is how parents engage with their child over time; direct involvement in learning diminishes, but the value of fostering conditions for academic success increases. Parents seem to affect their children’s academic outcomes by setting high academic expectations and by creating, in ways not considered intrusive or controlling, a comfortable space for the children to develop their own academic motivations. The review also found that the benefits of school-based involvement by parents are not strong or produce mixed results.

Boonk, L., Gijselaers, H. J., Ritzen, H., & Brand-Gruwel, S. (2018). A review of the relationship between parental involvement indicators and academic achievement. Educational Research Review24, 10–30.

Nine Competencies for Teaching Empathy.

The author shares nine teachable competencies that can serve as a principal's guide for empathy education. This paper will help answer which practices enhance empathy and how will principals know if teachers are implementing them effectively. 

Borba, M. (2018). Nine Competencies for Teaching Empathy. Educational Leadership76(2), 22-28.

Ecology of the Family as a Context for Human Development: Research Perspectives

This review collates and examines critically a theoretically convergent but widely dispersed body of research on the influence of external environments on the functioning of families as contexts of human development.

Bronfenbrenner, U. (1986). Ecology of the family as a context for human development: Research perspectives. Developmental psychology22(6), 723.

Evidence-Based Practice: How Did It Emerge and What Does It Mean for the Early Childhood Field?.

The authors discuss the emergence of the evidence-based practice movement and the challenges of integrating what we know from scientific research into daily practice with children and families.

Buysse, V., & Wesley, P. W. (2006). Evidence-Based Practice: How Did It Emerge and What Does It Mean for the Early Childhood Field?. Zero to Three (J)27(2), 50-55.

Using Parents as a Therapist to Evaluate Appropriate Behavior of Their Children: Application to a Tertiary Diagnostic Clinic

The authors conducted a preliminary analysis of maintaining variables for children with conduct disorders in an outpatient clinic. The assessment focused on appropriate child behavior and was conducted to formulate hypotheses regarding maintaining contingencies. 

Cooper, L. J., Wacker, D. P., Sasso, G. M., Reimers, T. M., & Donn, L. K. (1990). Using parents as therapists to evaluate appropriate behavior of their children: Application to a tertiary diagnostic clinic. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis23(3), 285-296.

What Is a “Professional Learning Community”?

To create a professional learning community, focus on learning rather than teaching, work collaboratively, and hold yourself accountable for results.

DuFour, R. (2004). What is a" professional learning community"?. Educational leadership61(8), 6-11.

Outcomes for children and youth with emotional and behavioral disorders and their families : programs and evaluation best practices

Presents some of the current best practices in services for children and their families, as well as in the research and evaluation of these services. 

Epstein, M. H., Kutash, K. E., & Duchnowski, A. E. (1998). Outcomes for children and youth with emotional and behavioral disorders and their families: Programs and evaluation best practices. Pro-Ed.

In search of program implementation: 792 replications of the Teaching-Family Model

This chapter discusses a solution-oriented and incremental approach to solving major social
problems.

Fixsen, D. L., Blase, K. A., Timbers, G. D., & Wolf, M. M. (2001). In search of program implementation: 792 replications of the Teaching-Family Model. Offender rehabilitation in practice: Implementing and evaluating effective programs, 149-166.

Evaluating Fidelity: Predictive Validity for a Measure of Competent Adherence to the Oregon Model of Parent Management Training

This article presents the Fidelity of Implementation Rating System (FIMP), an observation-based measure assessing competent adherence to the Oregon model of Parent Management Training (PMTO). 

Forgatch, M. S., Patterson, G. R., & DeGarmo, D. S. (2005). Evaluating fidelity: Predictive validity for a measure of competent adherence to the Oregon model of parent management training. Behavior therapy36(1), 3-13.

Effectiveness of family preservation services

This article reviews recent studies of family preservation and related family-strengthening programs, estimates the effect sizes of outcomes in studies with control or comparison conditions, and discusses the status of research on family preservation services.

Fraser, M. W., Nelson, K. E., & Rivard, J. C. (1997). Effectiveness of family preservation services. Social Work Research21(3), 138-153.

Responsiveness-to-intervention: A blueprint for practitioners, policymakers, and parents

CASL's general goal is to identify instructional practices that accelerate the learning of K-3 children with disabilities. A specific goal is to identify and understand the nature of nonresponsiveness to generally effective instruction. 

Fuchs, D., & Fuchs, L. S. (2005). Responsiveness-to-intervention: A blueprint for practitioners, policymakers, and parents. Teaching Exceptional Children38(1), 57-61.

Maternal employment and children's achievement in context: a meta-analysis of four decades of research

This meta-analysis of 68 studies (770 effect sizes) used random effects models to examine whether children's achievement differed depending on whether their mothers were employed.

Goldberg, W. A., Prause, J., Lucas-Thompson, R., & Himsel, A. (2008). Maternal employment and children's achievement in context: a meta-analysis of four decades of research. Psychological bulletin, 134(1), 77.

Lessons Learned From The Dissemination of Parenting Wisely, A Parent Training

An intervention was developed that did not rely upon trained or experienced service providers for its delivery to families with behavior disordered children and youth.

Gordon, D. A., & Stanar, C. R. Lessons Learned From The Dissemination of Parenting Wisely, A Parent Training.

Home environment and early cognitive development: Longitudinal research

This book presents the results of longitudinal studies in Canada and the United States that looked into the relationship between home environment and early cognitive development.

Gottfried, A. W. (Ed.). (2013). Home environment and early cognitive development: Longitudinal research. Academic Press.

Modification of Behavioral Problems in the Home with a Parent as Observer and Experimenter

Four parents enrolled in a Responsive Teaching class carried out experiments using procedures they had devised for alleviating their children's problem behaviors. The techniques used involved different types of reinforcement, extinction, and punishment.

Hall, R. V., Axelrod, S., Tyler, L., Grief, E., Jones, F. C., & Robertson, R. (1972). MODIFICATION OF BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS IN THE HOME WITH A PARENT AS OBSERVER AND EXPERIMENTER 1. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis5(1), 53-64.

Father Absence and Youth Incarceration

This study measured the likelihood of youth incarceration among adolescent males from father-absent households, using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N 5 34,031 person-years).

Harper, C. C., & McLanahan, S. S. (2004). Father absence and youth incarceration. Journal of research on adolescence14(3), 369-397.

The early catastrophe

In this study, researchers studied the ways in which daily exchanges between a parent and child shape language and vocabulary development. After four years these differences in parent-child interactions produced significant discrepancies in not only children’s knowledge, but also their skills and experiences with children from high-income families being exposed to 30 million more words than children from families on welfare.

Hart, B., & Risley, T. (2003). The early catastrophe. American Educator, 27(4), 6-9.

Visible learning

This influential book is the result of 15 years research that includes over 800 meta-analyses on the influences on achievement in school-aged students. This is a great resource for any stakeholder interested in conducting a serious search of evidence behind common models and practices used in schools.

Hattie, J. (2009). Visible learning. A synthesis of over, 800.

Visible Learning for Teachers: Maximizing Impact on Learning

This book takes over fifteen years of rigorous research into education practices and provides teachers in training and in-service teachers with concise summaries of the most effective interventions and offers practical guidance to successful implementation in classrooms.

Hattie, J. (2012). Visible learning for teachers: Maximizing impact on learning. Routledge.

Visible Learning Insights

Offering a concise introduction into the ‘Visible Learning Story’, the book provides busy teachers with a guide to why the Visible Learning research is so vital and the difference it can make to learning outcomes.

Hattie, J., & Zierer, K. (2019). Visible Learning Insights. Routledge.

Evaluating intensive family preservation programs: a methodological review

To determine the adequacy of evaluations of family preservation services (FPS), which are designed to support families and prevent out-of-home placements of children at risk of abuse or neglect, and to assess the effectiveness of FPS at reducing out-of-home placements of children

Henegan AM, Horwitz SM, Leventhal JM: Evaluation of intensive family preservation programs: a methodological review. Pediatrics 97:535–542, 1997

Parental school involvement and children’s academic achievement: Pragmatics and issues

The authors outline some of the mechanisms through which parental school involvement affects achievement and identify how patterns and amounts of involvement vary across cultural, economic, and community contexts and across developmental levels. Then propose the next steps for research. 

Hill, N. E., & Taylor, L. C. (2004). Parental school involvement and children's academic achievement: Pragmatics and issues. Current directions in psychological science13(4), 161-164.

Community Treatment for Youth: Evidence-Based Interventions for Severe Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

This outstanding textbook presents innovative interventions for youth with severe emotional and behavioral disorders. Community Treatment for Youth is designed to fill a gap between the knowledge base and clinical practice through its presentation of theory, practice parameters, training requirements, and research evidence.

Hoagwood, K. I. M. B. E. R. L. Y., Burns, B. J., & Weisz, J. R. (2002). A profitable conjunction: From science to service in children’s mental health. Community treatment for youth: Evidence-based interventions for severe emotional and behavioral disorders, 327-338.

Great Myths Of Child Development

Great Myths of Child Development reveals the latest evidence–based science behind the myths and misconceptions about the developing child. The book challenges the most commonly held child development myths. It provides the best available evidence science behind such topical issues as sugar and behavior, antidepressants impact on children, childhood vaccines, spankings, time–out, and children crying before bedtime.

Hupp, S., & Jewell, J. (2015). Great myths of child development. John Wiley & Sons.

Home environment and school learning: A quantitative synthesis

This systematic search of educational, psychological, and sociological literature found 18 studies of 5,831 school-aged students on the correlation of home environment and learning in eight countries over a 19-year period were selected.

Iverson, B. K., & Walberg, H. J. (1982). Home environment and school learning: A quantitative synthesis. The Journal of Experimental Education, 50(3), 144-151.

Parent Management Training: Treatment for Oppositional, Aggressive, and Antisocial Behavior in Children and Adolescent

Here, Alan E. Kazdin brings together the conceptual and empirical bases underlying PMT with discussions of background, principles, and concepts, supplemented with concrete examples of the ways therapists should interact with parents and children.

Kazdin, A. E. (2008). Parent management training: Treatment for oppositional, aggressive, and antisocial behavior in children and adolescents. Oxford University Press.

Promoting academic performance in inattentive children: The relative efficacy of school-home notes with and without response cost

The present study examined the effectiveness of two different school-home notes for increasing academic productivity and appropriate classroom behavior in five inattentive children.

Kelley, M. L., & McCain, A. P. (1995). Promoting academic performance in inattentive children: The relative efficacy of school-home notes with and without response cost. Behavior Modification19(3), 357-375.

Science in the schoolhouse: An uninvited guest.

In this discussion, we examine the relationship between science and education and delineate four reasons for characterizing science as an uninvited guest in schools. 

Landrum, T. J., & Tankersley, M. (2004). Science in the schoolhouse: An uninvited guest. Journal of Learning Disabilities37(3), 207-212.

School-family relations in context: Parent and teacher perceptions of parent involvement.

This study addressed teachers' and parents' perceptions of the meanings and functions of parent involvement. 

Lawson, M. A. (2003). School-family relations in context: Parent and teacher perceptions of parent involvement. Urban education38(1), 77-133.

Multiple effects of home and daycare crowding.

This research examines the relationship between noise and preschool children's acquisition of prereading skills, environmental factors in preschool inclusive classrooms, and children's use of outdoorplay equipment.

Maxwell, L. E. (1996). Multiple effects of home and day care crowding. Environment and Behavior, 28(4), 494-511.

Implementation of parent management training at the national level: The case of Norway

This article describes early aspects of the nationwide implementation of an evidence‐based program (EBP) in Norway and the design for studying program fidelity over time. 

Ogden, T., Forgatch, M. S., Askeland, E., Patterson, G. R., & Bullock, B. M. (2005). Implementation of parent management training at the national level: The case of Norway. Journal of Social Work Practice19(3), 317-329.

What To Know & Where To Go: Parents' Guide to No Child Left Behind. A New Era in Education.

This guide for parents outlines what they need to know about the legislation.

Paige, R. (2002). What to know and where to go parent’s guide to no child left behind a new era in education. Washington, DC: US Dept. of Education, Office of the Secretary.

School-family partnerships for children’s success.

This book provides essential information to better understand and improve the nature and quality of school and family partnerships for the benefit of all children

Patrikakou, E. N., & Anderson, A. R. (Eds.). (2005). School-family partnerships for children's success. Teachers College Press.

Family policies and children's school achievement in single‐versus two‐parent families.

This study investigated the gap in math and science achievement of third-and fourth-graders who live with a single parent versus those who live with two parents in 11 countries.

Pong, S. L., Dronkers, J., & Hampden‐Thompson, G. (2003). Family policies and children's school achievement in single‐versus two‐parent families. Journal of marriage and family, 65(3), 681-699.

The complex model of television viewing and educational achievement

Six studies containing data obtained from over 1 million students in elementary, intermediate, and high school were meta-analyzed to examine the relationship between amount of television viewing and educational achievement.

Razel, M. (2001). The complex model of television viewing and educational achievement. The Journal of Educational Research, 94(6), 371-379.

Parents and Learning

This booklet focuses on parents—the child’s first and most powerful teachers.

Redding, S. (2000). Parents and learning (Vol. 2). International Academy of Education.

The effects of comprehensive parent engagement on student learning outcomes.

This study examined the school-level effects on tested student achievement in 129 high poverty elementary schools that implemented a common set of comprehensive parent engagement strategies over a 2-year period. 

Redding, S., Langdon, J., Meyer, J., & Sheley, P. (2004). The effects of comprehensive parent engagement on student learning outcomes. American Educational.

Father Absence, Socioeconomic Status, and Race: Relations to Children's Cognitive Performance.

This meta-analysis looked at socioeconomic status and race statistics to determine whether there were relationships among socioeconomic status, race, and fathers absence from the home. The results of the meta-analysis appear to indicate that father-absence effects are independent of socioeconomic status or race.

Salzman, S. A. (1988). Father Absence, Socioeconomic Status, and Race: Relations to Children's Cognitive Performance.

Mental health services research and family-based treatment: Bridging the gap.

This chapter has two broad goals. The first is to acquaint researchers engaged in the emergent family intervention science and treatment development paradigms with a mental health services research perspective. The second is to describe multisystemic therapy as an example of the interface between treatment and services research.

Schoenwald, S. K., & Henggeler, S. W. (2002). Mental health services research and family-based treatment: Bridging the gap.

Predicting Therapist Adherence to a Transported Family-Based Treatment for Youth

This study examined relations between therapist, caregiver, and youth characteristics and therapist adherence to multisystemic therapy (MST). 

Schoenwald, S. K., Letourneau, E. J., & Halliday-Boykins, C. (2005). Predicting therapist adherence to a transported family-based treatment for youth. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology34(4), 658-670.

Kids & Family Reading Report 5th Addition

The Bi-annual Kids & Family Reading Report on the attitudes of children and parents toward reading was released in early January 2016. The latest research touches on reading aloud to children of all ages, the impact of reading independently for fun at school and at home, the importance of frequent reading, and the books children want most to read.

Scholastic. (2015). Kids & Family Reading Report 5th Addition. Scholastic.

Home-Based Behavioral Treatment of Young Children with Autism

This study evaluated the impact of intensive behavioral treatment on the development of young autistic children.

Sheinkopf, S. J., & Siegel, B. (1998). Home-based behavioral treatment of young children with autism. Journal of autism and developmental disorders28(1), 15-23.

A Consumer’s Guide to Evaluating a Core Reading Program Grades K-3: A Critical Elements Analysis

A critical review of reading programs requires objective and in-depth analysis. For these reasons, the authors offer the following recommendations and procedures for analyzing critical elements of programs.

Simmons, D. C., & Kame’enui, E. J. (2003). A consumer’s guide to evaluating a core reading program grades K-3: A critical elements analysis. Retrieved December19, 2006.

Socioeconomic status and academic achievement: A meta-analytic review of research

This meta-analysis reviewed the literature on socioeconomic status (SES) and academic achievement in journal articles published between 1990 and 2000. The results showed a medium to strong SES–achievement relation.

Sirin, S. R. (2005). Socioeconomic status and academic achievement: A meta-analytic review of research. Review of educational research, 75(3), 417-453.

Implementing Tier 2 social behavioral interventions: Current issues, challenges, and promising approaches.

The purpose of this special issue is to address current issues, challenges, and promising approaches for providing Tier 2 behavioral interventions in school settings. Articles solicited for this issue address gaps in the literature and implementation needs and challenges specifically for Tier 2.

Stormont, M., & Reinke, W. M. (2013). Implementing Tier 2 social behavioral interventions: Current issues, challenges, and promising approaches. Journal of Applied School Psychology29(2), 121-125.

The relation between socioeconomic status and academic achievement

This meta-analysis of almost 200 studies that considered the relation between SES and academic achievement were examined. Results indicated that as SES is typically defined (income, education, and/or occupation of household heads) and typically used (individuals as the unit of analysis), SES is only weakly correlated (r = .22) with academic achievement.

White, K. R. (1982). The relation between socioeconomic status and academic achievement. Psychological bulletin, 91(3), 461.

Are Sleepy Students Learning?

In this article Daniel Willingham tackles the issue of sleep and its impact on learning. This piece examines the available evidence-base on the topic in order to better inform parents and students of the impact of inadequate sleep on academic performance. The typical impact is not devastating, but it is real and the aftermath of cumulative loss of sleep is negative.

Willingham, D. T. (2013). Are Sleepy Students Learning?. American Educator, 36(4), 35-39.

A Parent’s Guide to Response-to-Intervention
This guide provides a description of RTI specifically designed for parents of students with Learning disabilities.
Cortiella, C. (2006). A parent's guide to response-to-intervention. National Center for Learning Disabilities.
The Longitudinal Effects of Kindergarten Enrollment and Relative Age on Children’s Academic Achievement
This research looked at early, on-time, or delayed kindergarten enrollment and children’s mathematics and reading achievement from kindergarten through third grade.
DA?LI, . Y., & Jones, I. (2013). The Longitudinal Effects of Kindergarten Enrollment and Relative Age on Children’s Academic Achievement. Teachers College Record, 115, 030304.
Self-Discipline Outdoes IQ in Predicting Academic Performance of Adolescents
This study examined self-discipline on eighth-grade students and the impact on final grades, school attendance, standardized achievement-test scores, and selection into a competitive high school program the following spring.
Duckworth, A. L., & Seligman, M. E. (2005). Self-discipline outdoes IQ in predicting academic performance of adolescents. Psychological Science, 16(12), 939-944.
The Marshmallow Test: Mastering Self-control.
This book by psychologist Walter Mischel examines delayed gratification through his seminal work known as the �marshmallow test’ and how this factor has been shown to be a reliable predictor of one having a successful life, predicting higher SAT scores, better social and cognitive functioning, a healthier lifestyle and a greater sense of self-worth.
Mischel, W. (2014). The Marshmallow Test: Mastering Self-control. New York. Little, Brown and Company. 2014.
“Willpower” over the life span: decomposing self-regulation.
This article reviews the longitudinal work derived from the marshmallow test’, originally conducted by Mischel and colleagues, used to measure preschoolers’ ability to delay gratification.
Mischel, W., Ayduk, O., Berman, M. G., Casey, B. J., Gotlib, I. H., Jonides, J., ... & Shoda, Y. (2010). Willpower’over the life span: decomposing self-regulation. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, nsq081.
Evidence-Based Teaching: A Practical Approach
This book offers a thorough array of practical teaching methods backed by rigorous research to have the greatest effect along with practical techniques to apply these in actual classroom settings.
Petty. G. (2009). Evidence-Based Teaching: A Practical Approach. Nelson Thornes, Cheltenham, United Kingdom.
Read To Kids, But Not Necessarily From Birth
This commentary is in response to a recent article in the New York Times suggesting parents should read to their children from birth. Willingham examines the research and offers practical suggestions to parents.
Willingham, D. (2014). Read To Kids, But Not Necessarily From Birth. Daniel Willingham Science and Education Blog.
The Effects of On-time, Delayed and Early Kindergarten Enrollment on Children’s Mathematics Achievement: Differences by Gender, Race, and Family Socio-economic Status
This study examined the effect of delayed, early, and on-time kindergarten enrollment on children's kindergarten mathematics achievement the impact of the children's gender, race, and family SES status.
Yesil Dagli, U., & Jones, I. (2012). The Effects of On-Time, Delayed and Early Kindergarten Enrollment on Children's Mathematics Achievement: Differences by Gender, Race, and Family Socio-Economic Status. Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, 12(4), 3061-3074.
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